Unit 2 Psychology Notes - Chapter 11 The Developing Mind...

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Chapter 11: The Developing MindEpigenetic Genotypes - genetic makeup Phenotype - an expression of that geneThere's a difference because not all genes are expressedBiological forces, sociocultural forces, and psychological forces go into human development1.Nature vs. Nurture2.Continuity vs. Discontinuity3.Universal vs. EcologicalNature: inherited characteristics (genetics, biology)Nurture: acquired characteristics (learning, environment)Continuity: gradual changes Discontinuity: discrete stages (wake up a new person - new age=new person)Universal: age-related behaviors found across entire human speciesEcological: focus on the impact of culture and environment and developmentPrenatal DevelopmentZygote: first 2 weeksEmbryo: 3-8 weeksFetus: remainder of pregnancy Newborn: first 28 days of life37-42 weeks is a normal pregnancyEarlier than 37 weeks is premature12% of babies in the US are born prematurelyAs women age, their children are more likely to have birth defects1 out of 2,000 at age 18 1 out of 30 at age 45 will give birth to a child with down syndromeTeratogen: any agent or factor that could produce harmful effects in the zygote, embryo, or fetus.Ex. drugs, alcohol, smoking, physical trauma, infectious diseases, STDs, prescribed medicationFAS - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pale, eyes far apart, small, reduction of gray matter in brain)Infancy: Reflex is an unlearned, automatic response to particular stimulusBabies are born with basic reflexesInfant ReflexesRooting - stroke the infant's face and the baby will turn and open mouth to breastfeedPalma - grasping; place something in the infant's hand and they will grab itBabinski - stroke the baby’s foot and their toes will curl and spread outMoro - raise up hands when suddenly dropped or fallingSucking and eyeblink reflexesVisual Perception:
Newborn - blurry 4 months - can see mother and close things8 months - mother and other people’s faces and more things12 months - most vibrant and seeing everything now Visual is the slowest sense to develop Depth-perception - around 6 monthsHearing: infants hear many different types of sounds Babies can differentiate mothers voiceTaste: differentiate major taste qualities - sweet, sour, bitter, saltyThey prefer sweetInfant Behavior: Activity: Sleep - 16-18 hours a dayCrying 2-3 hoursAlert looking around and moving arms and legs Childhood:7-9 months babies can sit without support and stand while holding onto something10-12 months first stepCognitive DevelopmentPiaget & the discontinuity approachSchemas: mental framework for understanding or acting on the environmentAssimilation: the process of incorporating new objects or situations to existing schemas-no change to the existing schemaAccommodation: the process of creating new schemas or modifying existing ones to account for new objects or experienceSensorimotor stage: birth-2Learning through senses (touching, putting things in mouth)Object permanence - completion on sensorimotor stagePreoperational stage: 2-6

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