Langridge, K. 2009. Cuttlefish use startle displays, but not against large predators. Animal Behavior . 77:847-856. Researchers studied the responses shown by cuttlefish, Sepia offcinalis, to different predators of a varying spectrum of danger and wondered if the identity and amount of threat posed by the predator would change the way cuttlefish responded. Encounters were simulated between cuttlefish and their varying predators to observe the way cuttlefish responded to different predators. It was noted that vivid displays of warning were only directed at smaller, less threatening predators while threats from larger predators did not elicit the flamboyant response. This data supported the conclusion that cuttlefish chose which predators to intimidate and by choosing the small, easily intimidated ones, avoid the risk of attracting the more dangerous large predators.
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