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Unformatted text preview: SCIENCE A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDlNOB OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION hula-fin: FRIDAY) OCTOBER 16, 1903 isghoflev Articles :- . fr‘i‘hlew Horticultural and Agricultural Terms. ‘ 501 De. Hansen J. WEBB“- SHORTER ARTICLES. new HORTICULTURAL sun AGRICULTURAL reams. THE extension of horticultural and agricul- tural knowledge and the extensive literature that is appearing on such topics render it necessary that new words and expressions be coined in many places to give more exact expression to our thoughts. The writer is very much opposed to the wholesale introduc- tion of new terms, as they seldom find use outside. of an individual writer’s papers. In some cases, however, it is absolutely necessary. Terms for scientific usage are ordinarily de- rived .from Greek or Latin and are seldom fitted or the general use of the masses of the peopl Words that we expect to 'be generally _used, he writer believes, should, regardless of dervation, be short, euphonious, phonet- ically spelled, easily pronounced and difierent from any other word in ordinary use, so that it will not suggest any other meaning than the one desired. If no word fulfilling these re- quirements and having the proper significa- tion can be derived from classical sources, the writer strongly favors the policy of inventing a short and convenient term with no meaning other than that given it and without reference to derivation classical or otherwise. By using this policy, short euphonious terms can be secured Why concede to the Greeks and .Latins the sole right of coining words and burden ourselves with inadequate, poorly- suited, classical or foreign ”terms when much simpler and better terms could easily be formed with half the efiort, if we could be freed from the shackles of philology and feel free to make meaningless terms without a pedigree! _ The above sentences are thrown in simply to relieve the writer’s feelings. For over two years he has been searching for, and asking friends to suggest, a suitable term to apply to those plants that are propagated vege- tatively by buds, grafts, cuttings, suckers, runners, slips, bulbs, tubers, etc. The plants grown from such vegetative parts are not indi- viduals in the ordinary sense, but are simply transplanted parts of the same individual, and in heredity and in all biological and physio: logical senses such plants are the same indi- vidual. The Word variety is a generic term which may be used to refer to the races of peas, beans, corn, wheat, etc: to the strains of these or other plants; and to natural varieties of scientific botanists as well as to those sorts where parts of the same individual are separated and grown: but for special refer- ence to the class of plants propagated by rela- tive parts it becomes very necessary to have a particular designation. ' Last year the writer suggested the word straw to use for such varieties and the term was referred to a committee .of the Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stu- tions for consideration. The term sir-ace is C i already in use. Recently Mr. O. F. Cook. of the Department of Agriculture, has called the writer’s attention to the Greek word don. with”) meaning a twig, spray, (it slip. such as is broken ed for propagation, which could be used in the connection desired. After care- ful consideration the writer believes this word much better suited to the purpose than the word strace which he previously suggested. The Greek words clcdos ( NZGJOC) and ole-ma (xi-Iran) have practically the same meaning and could be used. but are hardly as suitable. Ciados, shortened to clad, becomes a frequently used English term. Clemc is one letter longer than clon. All in all, the term clon seems Ocroasa 16, 1903.] well adapted to the purpdgi and as sucli' {ii word is urgently demanded for general use the writer would suggest its general adoption, 55 We have then the generic term variety, in- ' eluding groups in cultivation known as races, strains and clans. ' Races, Strains, Clone. Races in a strict sense are those groups of cultivated plants which have. well-marked, dif- ferentiating characters, and which propagate themselves true to seed ex t for slight indi- vidual variations. I Strains are groups of on tivated plants de-' 3 rived from races from which they 'do not difier " in visible, taxonomic characters in the ordinary sense, but into which has been bred acme in- trinsic quality such as a tendency to yield heavily, or a better adaptability to a certain environment. When, for instance, a breeder, by the careful selection of Blue Stem wheat produces a sort of Blue Stem which differs . ,, from the original race only in its ability to‘li’fi. give greater yields, it would be called a strain " of Blue Stem wheat. If, however, he selects Jones Winter Fife and changes it from a vel-v. vet chafi to a glabrous clihff, he has produom_ :1 new race. It must be admitted that there is no very definite line of demarcation between strains and races. ‘ Added to the above two divisions of varieties” we should now have: Clans, which are groups of plants that are propagated by the use of any form of vegeta- tive parts such as bulbs, tubers, curtings. grafts, buds, etc. and which are simply parts of the same individual seedling. We could then use such expressions as the following: ‘The clans of apples, pears, strawberries, etc., are not propagated true to seed. while this is one of the important characters of races of wheat and com,’ and ‘The difi’erentiating clonal characters of chrysanthemums are mainly in the form and color of the flowers.’ Clan, plural clans (pronounced with long 0), is a short word, easily pronounced. spelled phonetically and with a derivation which at least suggests its meaning. The writer wnnhl Variety its}. 503 “Hus-go lit asfla suitable term to adopt into gen- eral usage. ‘ ; A second term or expression, to which the writer desires to call attention, is the phrase w"‘transm€tting power, to apply to the faculty which an individual organism has of trans- %?'mifimg its individual peculiarities to its progeny. This expression the writer has used in his papers for several years past,* but is not aware that it has been used in this con- nection by other writers, although it may have been, as it is an expression that'would naturally suggest itself to any one thinking on this subject. Prepotency has been gen- itvi‘erally used in this sense, but this word has three well—recognized different meanings, namely, - 951's- 1. The faculty which an individual has of transmitting its individual qualities to its progeny without variation or reversion, mean- .7 ing in this case the strength of its hereditary WWW. — .riz. . . u 2. The faculty which one species has of ’ dominating another, with which it is crossed, u. in transmitting its characters. re s. The faculty which one kind of pollen sometimes possesses in being more potent in producing fecundation and ofispring than an- other. The first of these meanings is that for which the writer.usas the expression transmitting power. Professor Hays, of the University of Minnesota, uses the expression (ccntgerter) power in a similar manner, but this expression seems hardly applicable for use in any case other than where breeding is being conducted according to the centgener system used by him. In pedigree and grade breeding the trans- mitting power of the individual is the factor of prime importance that must be discovered by carefully following the performance of each individual in its progeny. - Masar- J. Wrasse. Mr Famine Lamas-ran, Dun-nan or Aoaronnrnas. ...
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