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Chap14_volti - STS 101 Chapter 14 How New Weapons Emerge...

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STS 101 Chapter 14 How New Weapons Emerge & How They May be Contained
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Broad Questions What are the factors determining which weapons are developed? What efforts might be made to control their development?
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Action and Reaction The history of warfare reveals a continual series of attempts by opposing nations to gain the upper hand through superior weaponry: first one country develops a weapon that gives them military superiority over their enemies, then the enemies develop a still superior weapon to re-gain the edge lost earlier.
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The process The offensive power of the knight was eroded by the longbow and the pike, and eventually overcome by the introduction of firearms, Cannon threatened the security of medieval castles until superior fortifications eliminated the threat,
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Castle before the invention of the cannon
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Cannon versus castle When cannons were invented, tall walls were no good. A cannon ball which smashed into the bottom of a tall wall would bring the whole wall crashing down So defenders built lower walls but made them much thicker so that the cannon balls would not go through them. They also built a solid roof on top to protect the men inside from cannon balls.
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Castle after the invention of the cannon Deal Castle, built ??
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An so on… The machine gun reduced fighting to a stalemate in World War I until the tank was developed to break the stalemate, The superiority of tanks has (in part) been challenged by superior guided missiles, Nowadays the threat of nuclear attack is being challenged by the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative, or “Star Wars”.
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“Star wars”
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And the Patriot guided missile Used to protect Israel in the first Gulf war (1991)
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Social Structure Implications Weapons are seldom adopted simply because of their military superiority because weapons. Like all technologies they emerge from larger social systems involving existing social patterns, social organization, cultural orientations, and the motivations of individual members of society.
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Mainly political changes Prior to the 18 th century, wars were rather limited affairs fought by paid professional armies to promote the interests of kings rather than the interests of the country. In the 18th Century, the Enlightenment preached rationality in all things and the great wars over religious principles in earlier centuries were abandoned in favor of wars fought to attain realistic goals.
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Like the French revolution During the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, revolutions transformed societies throughout
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This note was uploaded on 07/08/2009 for the course ENGL 101 taught by Professor Volti during the Spring '09 term at Clemson.

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Chap14_volti - STS 101 Chapter 14 How New Weapons Emerge...

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