Intro to Nursing Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - Intro to Nursing...

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Intro to Nursing Exam 2 Study GuideInfection Prevention and Control-Nature of InfectionoInfection is the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting indiseaseoEntry and multiplication of organisms result in diseaseoColonization occurs when microorganisms invade the host but does not cause infection-What is the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission ofinfection?oHAND HYGIENE-Chain of Infection(KNOW THIS)oReservoirs:usually moist dark places with a certain pH and places where things can grownand multiplyWounds, foley bag, nasty dressing, suction equipment, plants, animalsoPortal of Exit/Entry:skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tracts, GI/GU tractsoMode of transmission:direction, indirect, droplet, airborne, food-**#1 mode of transmission = hands, then stethoscope and equipment that goes room to roomoSusceptible Host:very young, very old, immune compromised
-Infection Process(KNOW THIS)o1. Incubation PeriodPathogen is first introduced and multiplies but has not produced any symptomsoProdromal StageSymptoms first start but you don’t feel completely sick yet, just exhaustedoIllness StageWhen you’re full on sickoConvalescenceRecovery, Acute part is over with and you feel better but aren’t back to 100%-Localized vs. Systemic InfectionsoLocalized:one area of bodyRed, tender, inflamed,possibly even drainage,warm, loss of function-Systemic:in the blood streamoFever, cough, headache, fatigue,leukocytosis, increased ESR,lymphocyte swellingLeukocytosis:increase in WBC-Normal levels:4,000- 10,000-WBC Count = 30, 000indicative of infectionNeutropenic= low WBCs, Immunocompromised-Defense Against InfectionoNormal flora(Microorganisms)Helps body to resist infection by releasing antibacterial substances and inhibitingmultiplication of pathogenic microorganismsoBody System DefensesOrgansSkin – 1stline of defenseInflammationVascular and cellular responsesExudatesTissue repair***Signs of local inflammation and infection are identical
-Types of Exudates(KNOW THESE)oSerous:clearish fluid, breakdown of macrophages (expected)oSerosanguineous:a little blood, a little clear fluids(not abnormal)oSanguineous:all blood (Not abnormal)oPurulent:pus, greenish-yellow, thickUsually a sign that something is infected-Health Care-Associated Infections (HAIs)oResults from delivery of health services in a healthcare facilityoPatients at greater risk for HAIsImmunocompromisedpatientsOlder adultsYoung childrenPatients with multipleillnesses-Over or under nourished patients-When we do invasive procedures-Antibiotic administration-Patients exposed to multidrug resistantorganisms-Anytime we break infection controloTypes of HAI Infections(KNOW THESE)IatrogenicFrom some kind of therapeutic or invasive procedureExogenousAny bacteria that grows outside of the body and that we have introduced tothe inside of the body (ex: salmonella)Endogenous

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