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lecture_4 - Anatomy and Physiology S. Laguette ME128 Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy and Physiology S. Laguette ME128 Fall 2007 October 8, 2007 10/08/07 ME128 1 Human Anatomy Anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body. To study anatomy you will need to sharpen your powers of observation, and you will have to learn a new language. 10/08/07 ME128 2 Human Physiology Physiology is the study of function in living matter. It attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for the origin, development and progression of life Human Physiology attempts to explain the chemical reactions that occur in cells, the transmission of nerve impulses, the contraction of muscles, the detail of transformation from light energy into chemical energy allowing us to see the world. 10/08/07 ME128 3 Disciplines of Anatomy Gross Anatomy: structures studied with the naked eye. Systematic anatomy: organized by systems, e.g., digestive, nervous, endocrine, etc. Regional anatomy: study of all structures in an area of the body, e.g., upper extremity bones, muscles, blood vessels, etc. 10/08/07 ME128 4 Disciplines of Anatomy Microscopic anatomy (histology) Cell biology Developmental anatomy (embryology) Pathological anatomy Radiologic anatomy (x-ray, CT, MRI) Other areas? (surgery) 10/08/07 ME128 5 Levels of Structural Organization Biochemical (atoms, molecules) Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism (Fig. 1.1) 10/08/07 ME128 6 Gross Anatomy Terms Superior (cranial) Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) Medial lateral Proximal distal Superficial deep (1.4) 10/08/07 ME128 7 Planes of the Body Frontal (coronal) (antpost) Transverse (horizontal) (sup-infer) Midsagittal (R-L) Parasagittal (unequal R-L) (1.5) 10/08/07 ME128 8 Body Cavities Dorsal body cavity Cranial & vertebral/spinal cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic & abdominopelvic cavity 1.8a 10/08/07 ME128 9 Serous Cavities Thorax & Abdomen Closed to outside Double walled sac (serous membrane) Pleural cavity pericardium peritoneum Parietal serosa Visceral serosa Serous fluid/cavity (1.9a) 10/08/07 ME128 10 Double walled sac Pleural cavity pericardium peritoneum Serous Cavities Parietal serosa Visceral serosa Serous fluid (1.9bcd) [name views and planes] 10/08/07 ME128 11 Mucous Membranes Lines body cavities open to the outside Respiratory system Digestive system Urinary system Reproductive system 10/08/07 ME128 12 Microscopic Techniques Light microscopy (LM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Tissue must be cut into thin sections Tissue must be stained Limitations 2-dimensional Static image (EM) Advantages: 0.2 m and 0.2 nm resolution, respectively [Naked eye = 100-200 m resolution] 10/08/07 ME128 13 Microscopic Techniques Ciliated epithelium seen with LM, TEM, & SEM (1.13abc) 10/08/07 ME128 14 Microscopic Techniques Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Advantage 3-D image Limitation Lower resolution than TEM 10/08/07 ME128 15 Medical Imaging Techniques X-rays (1.14) CT Scan (1.15) PET (1.17) Ultrasound imaging (1.18) MRI (1.19) fMRI Anatomy is important! 10/08/07 ME128 16 The Central Nervous System Brain Spinal cord 10/08/07 ME128 17 Brain embryology Week 5 to birth Expansion of cerebral hemispheres "C" shaped growth Gyri and sulci 10/08/07 (13.3) ME128 18 Adult brain parts Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus) Brainstem Midbrain Pons Medulla Cerebellum 10/08/07 ME128 (13.4) 19 Brain orientation Rostral-caudal* Anterior-posterior Dorsal-ventral* Superior-inferior Medial-lateral * change from brainstem-spinal cord 10/08/07 ME128 (13.1) 20 Brain orientation Rostral = anterior Caudal = posterior Dorsal = superior Ventral = inferior 13.1 10/08/07 ME128 21 Brain ventricles Cavities in brain Develop from neural tube Contain CSF Lined by ependymal cells (13.6b) 10/08/07 ME128 22 Coronal Brain Slice 10/08/07 ME128 23 Brain ventricles Lateral ventricles (#1&2) Third ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle Central canal (13.6b) 10/08/07 ME128 24 Lateral ventricles From telencephalon Within cerebral hemispheres "C" shaped (13.6ab) 10/08/07 ME128 25 Third ventricle From diencephalon In midline Interventricular foramen connects to lateral ventricles (13.6ab) 10/08/07 ME128 26 Cerebral aqueduct In mesencephalon Narrow tube shape (13.6ab) 10/08/07 ME128 27 Fourth ventricle From metencephalon Roof cerebellum Floor pons & medulla Apertures to subarachnoid space 2 lateral 1 median (13.6ab) 10/08/07 ME128 28 Cerebral hemispheres Landmarks Lateral fissure Longitudinal fissure Sulci (sulcus) grooves Gyri (gyrus) ridges Central sulcus (13.4) 13.7c 10/08/07 ME128 29 Frontal lobe Anterior/rostral to central sulcus Superior to transverse/lateral fissure (13.7abc) 10/08/07 ME128 30 Parietal lobe Posterior to central sulcus Superior to lateral fissure Anterior to parieto-occipital sulcus 10/08/07 (13.7abc) ME128 31 Temporal lobe Inferior to lateral fissure Anterior to occipital lobe 10/08/07 (13.7abc) ME128 32 Occipital lobe Posterior & inferior to parieto-occipital sulcus Posterior to temporal lobe 10/08/07 (13.7abc) ME128 33 Cerebral cortex Gray matter - ~2-4 mm thick White matter Fiber tracts Myelinated axons 10/08/07 (13.8) ME128 34 Sensory cortices 1 Sensory cortices First cortical areas to receive sensory signals First conscious awareness of sensations Organized by modalities, e.g., vision, touch, hearing, etc. Association Sensory Cortices Close to 1 sensory cortices Information processing Interpretation of sensations Memory of sensations 10/08/07 ME128 35 Visual association areas Brodmann areas 18,19+ Occipital, parietal, temporal lobes Visual information processing Color, form, motion (13.11ab) 10/08/07 ME128 36 Auditory association areas Brodmann area 22 Posterior to 1 auditory cortex Interpretation of sounds Meaning Significance Sound memory 10/08/07 ME128 (13.11a) 37 Wernicke's area Dominant side Language comprehension 10/08/07 (13.11a) ME128 38 Cerebral white matter Fiber tracts functionally & structurally related bundles of axons (nerves in PNS) Deep to cerebral cortex Surrounds basal ganglia ME128 (13.8) 39 10/08/07 Basal ganglia Functions regulate movement Damage dyskinesias, disorders of movement Parkinson's disease lack of movement, resting tremor, shuffling gait (Michael J. Fox, Janet Reno, Pope John?, Muhammed Ali, Yassir Arafat?) PD videos: http://sprojects.mmip.mcgill.ca/gait/parkinson/movie1.asp http://medweb.bham.ac.uk/http/depts/clin_neuro/teaching/tutorials/parkin sons/parkinsons2.html 10/08/07 ME128 (13.13b) 40 Hypothalamus functions ANS HR, BP, digestion, sm muscle, glands 2. Emotional response pleasure, rage, fear 3. Body temperature 4. Hunger & thirst 5. Behavior motivation, sex drive 6. Sleep-wake cycles 7. Circadian rhythms 8. Endocrine system 10/08/07 ME128 41 9. Memory formation (13.16b) 1. Brainstem Midbrain / mesencephalon Pons Medulla (oblongata) (13.19, 13.15) 10/08/07 ME128 42 Brainstem functions Functions Automatic controls for basic survival Connection between spinal cord & brain Cranial nerves to face and head (incorporate Chapter 14 material) 10/08/07 ME128 43 Midbrain Between diencephalon and pons CN III, IV Eye movement (13.20ac) 10/08/07 ME128 44 Midbrain Cerebral aqueduct Tectum Tegmentum Cerebral peduncle Periaqueductal gray matter (13.21a) 10/08/07 ME128 45 Meninges Dura mater Arachnoid Pia mater Functions Protect CNS Protect blood vessels Enclose CSF 10/08/07 (13.27, 13.25a) ME128 46 Dura mater Periosteal layer Anchored to skull No epidural space Meningeal layer Fused to periosteal layer of skull Covers brain Dural sinuses Separation of 2 layers Venous blood 10/08/07 ME128 13.25a) 47 Arachnoid Deep to dura (potential) subdural space Subarachnoid space CSF (13.25a) 10/08/07 ME128 48 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Functions Protects CNS with liquid cushion Allows CNS to float Transports nutrients Removes wastes (13.27b) 10/08/07 ME128 49 References http://www.southalabama.edu/alliedhealt h/biomedical/courses.html http://www.southalabama.edu/alliedhealt h/biomedical/311Anatomy/BMD311.htm 10/08/07 ME128 50 ...
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