lecture_13 - Animal Models and Research S Laguette ME 128...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Models and Research S. Laguette ME 128 Fall 2007 November 14, 2007 11/14/07 ME 128 1 Animal Models and Research Biomedical Research Animal Models Animal Studies Research testing 11/14/07 ME 128 2 11/14/07 ME 128 3 Animal Models Model of a disease to learn about it and test treatments before attempting to diagnose and treat patients with the disease: Some normal or diseased tissues can be cultured and studied outside of the body Patients with the disease can be studied An animal that has a similar disease can be studied The disease can be induced in an animal 11/14/07 ME 128 4 Animal Models These last two are considered "animal models" of disease. Animals can be used as models of human disease or disease of animals. Examples of animal models include: Induction of cancer in a mouse to simulate cancer in a human Studying a genetic disease in a pure-bred dog that is similar to a human disease Transplanting an organ between 2 pigs 11/14/07 ME 128 5 Animal Models Use the animal model to study the way the disease progresses and what factors are important to the disease process. The model can also be used to study disease treatment. This is done through the use of controlled experiments. 11/14/07 ME 128 6 Animal Models New animal models are continually being identified and characterized, A thorough literature search should always be conducted to determine what models are available and which are the most relevant. Selection of a species should not be based solely on availability, familiarity, or cost. 11/14/07 ME 128 7 Animal Models Cell culture systems are limited in that they represent tissues taken out of the body. They may not behave normally when removed from the blood, immune system, nervous system and neighboring tissues that help make them what they are. Studying patients is also not ideal. Usually patients with disease have many other problems at the same time. It is harder to control an experiment using a patient, and conclusions about the experiment can be less clear. 11/14/07 ME 128 8 Animal Models The natural course of a disease in a patient such as a human or a dog may take many years. This makes it extremely difficult to study it, compared to using a mouse, for example, in which the disease may progress over a few weeks or month. There are ethical issues about whether or not it is appropriate to experiment on humans. The same issues exist with using animals for experiments. A person must decide for themselves where they stand on this issue. 11/14/07 ME 128 9 Animal Models The aim of using animal models in biomedical research is to reconcile biologic phenomena between species examine systems existing in one species and extrapolate knowledge to another. Researchers continually identify or develop new animal models to evaluate pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, nutrition and metabolic disease, and the efficacy of novel drug development. 11/14/07 ME 128 10 Animal Model What is very often meant by the term "animal model" is modeling humans. It is not the image of the used animal that is the focus of research but the analogy of the physiological behavior of this animal to our own (or another) species. 11/14/07 ME 128 11 Classification The majority of laboratory animal models are developed and used to study the cause, nature, and cure of human disorders. They may be categorized in one of the following five groups, of which the first three are the most important, as given in numerical order: Induced (experimental) disease models Spontaneous (genetic) disease models Transgenic disease models Negative disease models Orphan disease models 11/14/07 ME 128 12 Animal Studies Typically safety issues and biocompatibility of materials are assessed in animal models Common animal models include Rabbit Dog Cat Pig Monkey 11/14/07 ME 128 13 Animal Studies 11/14/07 ME 128 14 Animal Studies Testing facilities include Vivarium Vetenerians Staff personnel Surgical suites Regulatory standards and requirements 11/14/07 ME 128 15 Animal Studies 11/14/07 ME 128 16 Animal Studies 11/14/07 ME 128 17 Animal Studies 11/14/07 ME 128 18 References SELECTION OF ANIMAL MODELS Research Animal Methods VSC 443/543 - Fall 2004 Michael S. Rand, DVM Chief, Biotechnology Support Service University of Arizona - Tucson Lecture date: September 27, 2004 11/14/07 ME 128 19 ...
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