Chapter 7 study guide - + + FADH 2 to produce ATP ii....

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Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 7: Cellular Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy I. Metabolism a. Glucose is the most common “fuel” in cells b. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy c. Occurs through oxidation (losing electrons) and reduction (gaining electrons) reactions d. NAD + serves as an electron carrier e. Two possible pathways: *note- ATP is net gained II. Glycolysis a. Begins metabolism in all cells; requires no O 2 b. Occurs in the cytoplasm c. Glucose is oxidized forming 2 pyruvate molecules d. 2 ATP are consumed; 4 ATP and 2 NADH + +H are generated III. Pyruvate Oxidation a. First step (of three) of cellular respiration b. Requires O 2 c. Pyruvate + NAD + + CoA Acetyl CoA +NADH+H + +CO 2 d. Occurs in mitochondrial matrix IV. The Citric Acid Cycle (AKA Krebs Cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle) a. Cyclical—products are used as reactants in the next cycle b. 2Acetyl CoA + H 2 O + NAD + + FAD 2CO 2 + 6NADH+H + + 2FADH 2 + 2ATP (*note-this equation is not balanced) c. occurs in mitochondrial matrix V. The Respiratory Chain a. Goals: i. use energy trapped in NADH+H
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Unformatted text preview: + + FADH 2 to produce ATP ii. regenerate NAD + and FAD b. occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane c. NADH act as reducing agentthat is, it gives electrons to the respiratory chain d. Electrons are passed through a series of molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane e. Protons are transported through active transport to intermembrane space of mitochondria, creating a concentration gradient f. Protons pass through ATP synthase (enzyme) in the direction of the gradient, and this energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and P i g. 1 molecule of NADH+H + forms 3 ATP in the respiratory chain VI. Fermentation a. Requires no O 2 b. Pyruvate oxidized to either ethanol or lactic acid c. No ATP produced d. Uses NADH+H + from glycolysis to reduce pyruvate, regenerating NAD + e. When cells use fermentation in place of cellular respiration, rate of glycolysis speeds up so that ATP is sufficient...
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Chapter 7 study guide - + + FADH 2 to produce ATP ii....

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