FINAL EXAM NOTES
The final exam will be approximately 300 points, and will be divided into 250 points from weeks 6-10 and 50
points from weeks 1-5.
The following list gives you a specific description of the areas that will be covered in
the final from weeks 6 to 10 of the class, and identifies the relevant portions of the midterm exam notes that will
be covered in the final from weeks 1 to 5.
Some problems from Problem Sets 6-10, or slight variations on these problems, may be on the exam.
Know the concepts, explanations, and important facts presented in lecture.
Know the sequence of reactions, structure of each molecule, use of ATP, NAD
, FAD, NADPH, etc., and
subcellular localization (cytosol, inner mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial matrix, etc.) for the
Oxidation of saturated fatty acids such as palmitate in a typical cell starting with the formation of fatty
Acyl CoA in the cytosol, entry into the matrix via the carnitine shuttle, and ending with (for palmitate) 8 acetyl
CoA molecules in the mitochondria. (Note: you don't need to memorize the structure of carnitine itself--just use
a box with an OH group attached to it, as I did in lecture). Know the point of entry in electron transport of the
NADH and FADH
generated in FAO and the expected ATP production from each.
You do not need to know
the additional enzymatic reactions which are required for the complete oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, but
you should know that there will be one less FADH
generated in FAO for each C = C double bond.
You do not
need to know the detailed enzymatic reactions necessary to oxidize odd chain fatty acids, but you should know
that such fatty acids are synthesized only in some marine organisms, and that sequential cycles of FAO result in
propionyl CoA which is converted into succinyl CoA in three enzymatic steps, the first
of which requires biotin
and the last
Know the structure of triacylglycerol, the enzymatic step which releases free fatty
acids from triacylglycerols in adipose tissue (lipase), and the form in which free fatty acids are transported in
blood to user tissues (complexed to albumin).
catabolism starting with
-hydroxybutyrate and ending with 2 acetyl CoA.
Biosynthesis starting with acetyl CoA.
Fatty acid biosynthesis starting with 2 acetyl CoA in the cytosol and ending with the formation of
C(O)-S-ACP. (see lecture handout).
The pathway for the transport of acetyl CoA from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytosol; the pathway for
the return of oxaloacetate to the mitochondria via malic enzyme and pyruvate (see lecture handout).
that the transfer of acetyl CoA from matrix to cytosol is driven by 1 ATP hydrolysis and that, in the return
of oxaloacetate to the matrix, one NADH is converted to NADPH at the expense of 1 ATP hydrolysis (see