Chapter03

Chapter03 - Chapter 3. An Introduction to Organic Reactions...

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Chapter 3 - 1 Chapter 3. An Introduction to Organic Reactions And Their Mechanisms: Acids and Bases 3.1A. Homolysis and Heterolysis of Covalent Bonds made of e's (electrons) move of electrons - formation of bonds: gathering of e's - cleavage of bonds: scattering of e's Never forget Organic Reactions (Rxn) involve movement of electrons. denoted by curved arrows (mechanism arrows) means means "movement of a pair of e's"
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Chapter 3 - 2 Question) Explain the mechanism of a reaction: A B A + B Ans) A B A + B A B A + B A B means lost electron gained electron Remember the picture In general, - start at negatively charged species (or similar) - end up at positively charged species (or similar) <-- No backwards!
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Chapter 3 - 3 The most basic reaction types Bond cleavage - Heterolysis (heterolytic cleavage): breaking a bond unequally A B A + B - Homolysis (homolytic cleavage): breaking a bond equally (evenly) A B A + B Bond formation half arrow: one electron A B A + B
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Chapter 3 - 4 (Typical examples) A B + B Y Y A A B + B Y Y A one negative charge before the rxn one negative charge after the rxn A B X X A B A B X A B X one positive before the rxn one positive after the rxn
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Chapter 3 - 5 (Additional basic concepts) - More electronegative atom tends to possess negative charge. - Less electronegative atom tends to possess positive charge. A B + B Y Y A A B X X A B A B X A B X if A is more electronegative than B ! ! ! ! partial charges if B is more electronegative than A Similarly, if B is more electronegative than A ! ! + A Y B No
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Chapter 3 - 6 3.2A. Acid-Base Rxns (Br φ nsted-Lowry theory) H 2 O + HCl H 3 O + Cl base acid conjugate acid of H 2 O conjugate base of HCl Let's draw the mechanism of the acid-base rxn. H
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2009 for the course CHEM 322AL taught by Professor Jung during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Chapter03 - Chapter 3. An Introduction to Organic Reactions...

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