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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Seventeen Foreign and Defense Policy: Protecting the American Way Chapter Outline I. The Roots of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy A. The Cold War Era B. A New World Order C. The War on Terrorism D. The Iraq War II. The Military Dimension of National Security Policy A. Military Power, Uses, and Capabilities 1. Nuclear War Capability 2. Conventional and Guerilla War Capability B. The Politics of National Defense III. The Economic Dimension of National Security Policy A. Promoting Global Trade B. Access to Oil and Other Natural Resources C. Assistance to Developing Nations IV. A Challenging World Chapter Summary The chief instruments of national security policy are diplomacy, military force, economic exchange, and intelligence gathering. These are exercised through specialized agencies of the U.S. government, such as the Departments of State and Defense, which are largely responsive to presidential leadership. National security policy has also relied on international organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, that are responsive to the global concerns of major nations. From 1945 to 1990, U.S. foreign and defense policies were dominated by a concern with the Soviet Union. During most of this period, the United States pursued a policy of containment based on the premise that the Soviet Union was an aggressor nation bent on global conquest. Containment policy led the United States to enter into wars in Korea and Vietnam and to maintain a large defense establishment. U.S. military forces are deployed around the globe, and the nation maintains a large nuclear arsenal. The end of the cold war, however, made some of this weaponry and strategic planning less relevant to Americas national security. A first response to the post-cold-war world was multilateralism, the idea that major nations could achieve common goals by working together, including using force as a means of arresting regional conflicts. The interventions in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans during the 1990s are examples. They demonstrated that major nations can intervene with some success in global hot spots but also showed that the ethnic, religious, and national conflicts that fuel these flashes are not easily resolved. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001 led to broad changes in national security organization and strategy. Increased spending on defense and homeland security have been coupled with a partial reorganization of U.S. intelligence, law-enforcement, and immigration agencies, as well as new laws affecting the SG 17 | 1 scope of their activities. However, the defining moment of the post-September 11 period was Americas invasion of Iraq in 2003, which was rooted in President George W. Bushs preemptive war doctrine and his willingness to commit the United States to unilateral action....
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- Spring '09