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Practice Questions for Exam 2

Practice Questions for Exam 2 - Practice Questions for 2nd...

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Practice Questions for 2nd Exam ECOL 330 General on Evolution 1. What conditions have to be present for a trait to evolve? Mating between two individuals, mutation, and random selection. Reproduction needs to exist. 2. What is evolution? Evolution describes how allele frequencies change and species adapt as a result if: traits are heritable, traits very between individuals, and traits lead to differential reproduction. 3. What are the types of evidence we have that evolution happened and all life on earth has a single ancestor? An example of this would be the evolution of social behavior in chimpanzees. 4. What is heritability? How can you find out whether a trait is heritable? Heritability is when anything is capable of being passed from generation to generation. A trait is heritable because the formation of the brain and specific circuits, even the potential to learn, all require information before learning: genetic information. Any variation in that genetic information is heritable. 5. How many genes influence behavior? No single gene determines a particular behavior. Behaviors are complex traits involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. This fact often gets overlooked in media reports hyping scientific breakthroughs on gene function, and, unfortunately, this can be very misleading to the public. 6. What evidence do we have that many behaviors are heritable (via genes)? DNA would be an example of the heritable behaviors that are present while viewing genes. 7. Can a learned behavior evolve? Explain. Yes. The most widely accepted idea is that learning allows an individual to adjust its behavior in an adaptative way in a changing environment, where fitness consequences of a given action very from generation to generation or even within a lifetime.
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8. Why do some people call evolution ‘the eternal tinkerer’? 9. What is meant by levels of selection? Name three of the levels, explain the term, and give an example for each. For natural selection to proceed there must be heritable variation in phenotypes and the variation in phenotype must be associated with differential survival and/or reproduction. For example, there must be differential fitness. Group selection, species selection, and genetic selection are the three levels of the selection. 10. What is the difference between dualism and monism? Dualism is the belief that mind is separate from matter. Monism is all matter, including out bodies, consist of particles that follow the laws of physics. 11. Kliman and Johnson wrote:
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