Patterson9_sg_ch16 - Chapter Sixteen Welfare and Education Policy Providing for Personal Security and Need Chapter Outline I II Poverty in America

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Chapter Sixteen Welfare and Education Policy: Providing for Personal Security and Need Chapter Outline I. Poverty in America: The Nature of the Problem A. The Poor: Who and How Many? B. Living in Poverty: By Choice or Chance? II. The Politics and Policies of Social Welfare A. Social Insurance Programs 1. Social Security 2. Unemployment Insurance 3. Medicare B. Public Assistance Programs 1. Supplemental Security Income 2. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) 3. Food Stamps 4. Subsidized Housing 5. Medicaid C. Culture, Welfare, and Income 1. Inefficiency and Inequity 2. Income and Tax Measures III. Education as Equality of Opportunity A. Public Education: Leveling Through the Schools B. Public School Issues C. The Federal Role in Education: Political Differences IV. The American Way of Promoting the General Welfare Chapter Summary The United States has a complex social welfare system of multiple programs addressing specific welfare needs. Each program applies only to those individuals who qualify for benefits by meeting the specific eligibility criteria. In general, these criteria are designed to encourage self- reliance or, when help is necessary, to ensure that laziness is not rewarded or fostered. This approach to social welfare reflects Americans’ traditional belief in individualism. Poverty is a large and persistent problem in the United States. About one in nine Americans falls below the government-defined poverty line, including a disproportionate number of children, female-headed families, minority-group members, and rural and inner-city dwellers. The ranks of the poor are increased by economic recessions and are reduced through government assistance programs. Welfare policy has been a partisan issue, with Democrats taking the lead on government programs to alleviate economic insecurity and Republicans acting to slow down or decentralize these initiatives. Changes in social welfare have usually occurred through presidential leadership in the context of majority support for the change. Welfare policy has been worked out through SG – 16 | 1
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programs to provide jobs and job training, education programs, income measures, and especially transfer payments through individual-benefit programs. Individual-benefit programs fall into two broad categories: social insurance and public assistance. The former includes programs such as Social Security for retired workers and Medicare for the elderly. Social insurance programs are funded by payroll taxes paid by potential recipients, who thus, in a sense, earn the benefits they later receive. Because of this arrangement, social insurance programs have broad public support. Public assistance programs, in contrast, are funded by general tax revenues and are targeted toward needy individuals and families. These programs are not controversial in principle; most Americans believe that government should assist the truly needy. However, because of a widespread belief that most welfare recipients could get along without assistance if they tried, these programs do not have
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2009 for the course POLITICAL PSCI 231- taught by Professor Knight during the Spring '09 term at Chadron State College.

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Patterson9_sg_ch16 - Chapter Sixteen Welfare and Education Policy Providing for Personal Security and Need Chapter Outline I II Poverty in America

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