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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Thirteen The Federal Bureaucracy: Administering the Government Chapter Outline I. Federal Administration: Form, Personnel, and Activities A. The Federal Bureaucracy in Americans Daily Lives B. Types of Administrative Organizations 1. Cabinet Departments 2. Independent Agencies 3. Regulatory Agencies 4. Government Corporations 5. Presidential Commissions C. Federal Employment D. The Federal Bureaucracys Policy Responsibilities II. Development of the Federal Bureaucracy: Politics and Administration A. Small Government and the Patronage System B. Growth in Government and the Merit System C. Big Government and the Executive Leadership System III. The Bureaucracys Power Imperative A. The Agency Point of View B. Sources of Bureaucratic Power 1. The Power of Expertise 2. The Power of Clientele Groups 3. The Power of Friends in High Places IV. Bureaucratic Accountability A. Accountability through the Presidency 1. Reorganization 2. Presidential Appointments 3. The Executive Budget B. Accountability through Congress C. Accountability through the Courts D. Accountability within the Bureaucracy Itself 1. Whistle-Blowing 2. Demographic Representativeness V. Reinventing Government? Chapter Summary Bureaucracy is a method of organizing people and work, based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formalized rules. As a form of organization, bureaucracy is the most efficient means of getting people to work together on tasks of great magnitude and complexity. It is also a form of organization that is prone to waste and rigidity, which is why efforts are always being made to reinvent it. The United States could not be governed without a large federal bureaucracy. The day-to-day work of the federal government, from mail delivery to provision of social security to SG 13 | 1 international diplomacy, is done by the bureaucracy. Federal employees work in roughly four hundred major agencies, including cabinet departments, independent agencies, regulatory agencies, government corporations, and presidential commissions. Yet the bureaucracy is more than simply an administrative giant. Administrators exercise considerable discretion in their policy decisions. In the process of implementing policy, they make important policy and political choices. Each agency of the federal government was created in response to political demands on national officials. Because of its origins in political demands, the administration of government is necessarily political. An inherent conflict results from two simultaneous but incompatible demands on the bureaucracy: that it respond to the preferences of partisan officials and that it administer programs fairly and competently. This tension is evident in the three concurrent personnel management systems under which the bureaucracy operates: patronage, merit, and executive leadership....
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