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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Five Equal Rights: Struggling Toward Fairness Chapter Outline I. The Struggle for Equality A. African Americans 1. The Brown Decision 2. The Black Civil Rights Movement 3. The Aftermath of the Civil Rights Movement B. Women 1. Womens Legal and Political Gains 2. Job-Related Issues: Family Leave, Comparable Worth, and Sexual Harassment C. Native Americans D. Hispanic Americans 1. Legal and Political Action 2. Growing Political Power E. Asian Americans F. Other Groups and Their Rights 1. Older Americans 2. Disabled Americans 3. Gays and Lesbians II. Equality Under the Law A. Equal Protection: The Fourteenth Amendment B. Equal Access: The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 1. Accommodations and Jobs 2. Housing C. Equal Ballots: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended III. Equality of Result A. Affirmative Action: Workplace Integration B. Affirmative Action in the Law C. Busing: School Integration IV. Persistent Discrimination: Superficial Differences, Deep Divisions Chapter Summary During the past few decades, the United States has undergone a revolution in the legal status of its traditionally disadvantaged groups, including African Americans, women, Native Americans, Latino Americans, and Asian Americans. Such groups are now provided equal protection under the law in such areas as education, employment, and voting. Discrimination by race, sex, and ethnicity has not been eliminated from American life but is no longer substantially backed by the force of law. Traditionally disadvantaged Americans have achieved more equality primarily as a result of their struggle for greater rights. The Supreme Court has been an important institutional instrument of SG 5 | 1 change for minority groups, particularly with its ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS (1954). De jure segregation was declared an unconstitutional violation of the Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause by the justices. With subsequent rulings on the transportation of students, affirmative action, and other issues, the Court has also mandated the active promotion of integration and equal opportunities. As civil rights policy involves important issues concerned with social values and the distribution of societys resources, civil rights questions are politically potent. For this reason, legislatures and executives as well as the courts have been deeply involved in such issues, siding at times with established groups and sometimes backing the claims of underprivileged groups. Thus Congress, with the support of President Lyndon Johnson, enacted the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964; but Congress and recent presidents have been ambivalent about or hostile to busing for the purpose of integrating public schools....
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