chapter 3 - Understanding Earth Chapter 3: EARTH MATERIALS...

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Understanding Earth Chapter 3: EARTH MATERIALS Minerals & Rocks Minerals – more than pretty crystals! • building materials of Earth materials (i.e. rocks) • sources of most of the materials society uses
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Mineral Defined ! Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. (AGI Dictionary) ! Minerals are the basic components of ROCKS , and the mineral constituents define the properties of the rocks ! The properties of minerals are a function of their chemical composition and crystal structure (relates to their use as well) ! Mineral formation affected by temperature, pressure & fluids Wulfenite (PbMoO 4 )
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Minerals Defined II ! Naturally occurring: synthetic substances may be crystals, but are not minerals ! Solid and crystalline (ordered structure ) : Glass occurs naturally and is solid, but is not crystalline (amorphous), so is not a mineral ! Generally inorganic : But does not exclude crystalline chemical compounds that are produced by organisms ! Specific chemical composition (or range of compositions): SiO 2 = Quartz Fe 2 SiO 4 and Mg 2 SiO 4 = olivine (Fe,Mg) 2 SiO 4
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Considering the abundance of Si and O in the crust (and mantle), it should not be surprising that most rocks are made of “silicate” minerals.
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Rocks Minerals together form rocks
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Periodic Table Rows – each element has the same number of electron shells Columns – each element has the same # of electrons in the outer shell Chemical behavior depends on # of electrons in outer shell Minerals are naturally occurring chemical compounds typically consisting of two or more elements
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chapter 3 - Understanding Earth Chapter 3: EARTH MATERIALS...

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