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chapter 7 - Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Understanding...

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Understanding Earth Chapter 7: DEFORMATION Modification of Rocks by Folding and Fracturing Grotzinger • Jordan • Press • Siever How are mountains “made”? Waterton National Park, Canada
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Summary • Deformation is result of forces within the Earth – Active tectonic zones = earthquakes • Deformation types Brittle – Ductile • Deformation of rocks produces – Joints – Faults – Folds Earth history information gained from studying deformed rocks Important features for localizing energy & mineral resources Actions of surficial processes on deformed rocks may create unstable slopes = bad building sites
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Brittle deformation
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Ductile deformation (“bent, not broken” – folds)
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Terminology used to describe the orientation of inclined strata: Strike & Dip The orientation of rocks is recorded using strike and dip. Strike: The direction of the intersection of a rock layer with a horizontal surface Expressed as a compass direction. Dip: Measured at right angles to strike is the angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal. Expressed as both an angle, and a dip direction.
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Geologic Maps and Cross Sections 35° Geologic maps show the spatial relationships of different formations. Strike and dip are recorded on the map using specific symbols Different rock types are assigned different patterns.
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