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Practice Questions for Final Exam

Practice Questions for Final Exam - Practice Questions for...

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Practice Questions for Final Exam 1. Diversity of social behavior Prokaryote : any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as the bacteria and blue-green algae. o Examples : bacteria and archaea. Non-Insect Invertebrates : coral would be an example. Social behavior in non-insect invertebrates: live in colonies, polyps, social colonies of polyps. Cooperative non-insect invertebrates: Portuguese man of war, lots of polyps living together in colonies. Looks like one giant jellyfish, polyps helping each other float, attack, share food that they collect. They are very complicated organisms. Christmas Island crabs are not insects but aggregate for mating. Congregate on the same coast on Christmas Island. Deposit egg and sperm in the sea and they find each other. No one has to find a mate physically. Protects the crabs from predation because of groups. In groups, there is a lower amount of predation, and if a crab goes by itself, there is a higher chance of predation. Invertebrates are animals that don’t have vertebrates. Includes coral and jellyfish, crabs, spiders, and snails. o Examples : coral Eukaryote : any organism having as its fundamental structural unit a cell type that contains specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis or meiosis, characteristic of all life forms except bacteria, blue-green algae, and other primitive microorganisms. o Examples : animals, plants, fungi and protists are all eukaryotes. Mammals : warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the brain. o Examples : raccoons, dogs, koalas. Insects: any of numerous usually small arthropod animals of the class Insecta, having an adult stage characterized by three pairs of legs and a body segmented into head, thorax, and abdomen and usually having two pairs of wings. o Examples : flies, crickets, mosquitoes, beetles, butterflies, and bees. Give examples for social groups that are composed of a) close kin, b) a mix of related and unrelated individuals, and c) large groups of unrelated individuals. How prevalent do you expect cooperation/altruism to be in each of these groups? (a) Close kin: lions and elephants (b) A mix of related and unrelated individuals: ants
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(c) Large groups of unrelated individuals: elephant seals (a) Most altruistic (b) Possible altruism (c) No altruism In many social mammals, males and females differ in their grouping behavior. Explain how and why. Explain how this affects the mating system (polygamy vs. monogamy).
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