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bioCHAPTER_11 - CHAPTER 11 signal transduction pathway the...

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CHAPTER 11 signal transduction pathway - the process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response LOCAL AND LONG DISTANCE SIGNALING -cells may communicate by direct contact via cell junctions -animal cells may communicate via direct contact between membrane bound cell surface molecules - local regulators - messenger molecules that travel only short distances -include growth factors -one cell can signal many cells around it - paracrine signaling - this type of local signaling synaptic signlaing - local signaling that occurs in the animal nervous system -electrical signal along a nerve cell triggers the secretion of a chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitter molecule hormones -used for long distance signaling- know as endocrine signaling -ex. insulin, ethylene -transmission of signal through the nervous system can also be long distance signaling THE THREE STAGES OF CELL SIGNALING 1. Reception - target cell’s detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell -Chemical signal binds to a receptor protein located at the cell’s surface or inside cell 2. Transduction - Converts the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response -Often require signal transduction pathway- a series of different molecules 3. Response -transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response RECEPTION -A receptor protein on the target cell allows the cell to hear the signal and respond to it -signal molecule is complementary in shape- lock and key -Signal behaves like ligand
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