Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 Biology Reading THE SYNTHESIS AND...

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Chapter 5 Biology Reading THE SYNTHESIS AND BREAKDOWN OF POLYMERS condensation reaction - two molecues are covalently bonded through the loss of a water molecule -one molecue provides hydroxyl and the other a hydrogen **Requires energy and must be carried out with enzymes hydrolysis -to break bonds with the addition of water -Hydrogen attaches to one of the groups, and the hydroxyl attaches to the other CARBOHYDRATES carbohydrates - include sugars and the polymers of sugars -simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides -disaccharides are double sugars -polysaccharides are macromolecules of carbohydrates SUGARS - monosaccharides - usually multiples of the unit CH2O -Glucose the simplest monosaccharides -has carbonyl group (c=O) and hydroxyl groups -depending on the carbonyl group, it is either aldose or ketose - In aqueous solutios glucose molecules and other sugars form rings -Dissaccharides- consist of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage - glycosidic linkage - a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction -maltose=2 glucose -sucrose (table sugar)= glucose and fructose -lactose=glucose and galactose POLYSACCHARIDES polysaccharides - macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages STORAGE POLYSACCHARIDES Starch - storage polysaccharide of plants consisting entirely of glucose monomers -joined by 1-4 linkages (1 carbon to 4 carbon) -angle of bonds makes the polymer helical -amylose- unbranched simplest starch -amylopectin- branched starch glycogen - glucose storage polysaccharide in animals. Branched -stored in liver and muscles STRUCTURAL POLYSACCHARIDES
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cellulose- polymer of glucose, but only of beta glucose alpha/beta glucose - alpha=hydroxyl below plane of ring, beta= above in starch all glucose is alpha **starch and cellulose have different shapes due to their different glycosidic linkages -starch is helical -cellulose is straight and its hydroxyl groups are free to hydrogen bond with hydroxyls of other cellulose molecules in parallel
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2009 for the course BILD BILD1 taught by Professor Bever during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Chapter_5 - Chapter 5 Biology Reading THE SYNTHESIS AND...

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