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CHAPTER 8 BIOLOGY READING catabolic pathways - release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds -breakdown of sugar molecules- cellular respiration anabolic pathways- consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones -synthesis of protein from amino acids FORMS OF ENERGY energy - capacity to cause change potential energy - energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure chemical energy - potential energy avaliable for release in a chemical reaction THE LAWS OF ENERGY TRANSFORMATION -thermodynamics - energy transformation that occur in a collection of matter -organisms are open systems THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS -The energy of the universe is constant- energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS -During every energy transfer some energy becomes unusable energy, unavaliable to do work- usually lost as heat entropy - measure of disorder or randomness -Every energy transfer increase the entropy of the universe -Entropy increases for spontaneous processes BIOLOGICAL ORDER AND DISORDER -Living systems increase the entropy of their surroundings -ex. breakdown of starch into carbon dioxide and water -Energy is lost as heat **The entropy of a system may actually decrease so long as the total entropy of the universe increases FREE ENERGY CHANGE free energy - measures the portion of a system’s energy that can perform work -negative delta G is spontaneous FREE ENERGY, STABILITY, AND EQUILIBRIUM -Higher G indicates that a system is not that stable--> lower G - chemical equilibrium - rate of forward and backwards rxn occurs at the same rate -For a system at equilibrium, G is at its lowest value in that system -system at equilibrium can do no work
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2009 for the course BILD BILD1 taught by Professor Bever during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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