2200.2008.Ch6Motivation%20%26%20ReinforcementONLINE

2200.2008.Ch6Motivation%20%26%20ReinforcementONLINE -...

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Unformatted text preview: Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 1 Agenda Chapter 6 Motivation and Reinforcement Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 2 Motivation & Reinforcement The Central question: how do rewards, goals and feedback influence motivation and performance? Undesirable effects? Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 3 What Is Motivation? Motivation = the forces inside an individual that lead to the level, direction, and persistence of effort he or she makes at work where level = amount of effort (great or small) direction = choice as to where to direct effort when given alternatives persistence = time spent continuing to try in an action Lets define motivation Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 4 Theory X An important underlying factor is how much you believe in the homo economicus model Homo economicus cares solely about maximizing own outcomes (selfish) Doing so with minimal effort (lazy) Is clever at identifying opportunities to get more by doing less (opportunistic) Adhering to this philosophy makes the design of incentive and accountability systems complicated All managerial problems become variants of principal-agent problems Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 5 Three Categories of Motivational Theories Reinforcement theories Emphasize controlling an individuals behaviour through manipulating its consequences Content theories Identify the needs that motivate individual behaviour, i.e., the physiological and psychological deficiencies we feel compelled to reduce Process theories Seek to understand the thought processes that determine behaviour, why a person acts in a certain way given available rewards and work opportunities We will dive into 3 types of motivational theories, and one will put more emphasis on one or the others depending ones the belief in theory X Reinforcement theories Content theories Process theories Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 6 Reinforcement Approach to Motivation Classical conditioning: learning through association. Pavlov, the ringing bell and the salivating dogs E.g. see the boss smiling and receives criticism, which makes the person feel nervous; next time the person sees the boss smiles, she may feel nervous Conditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: the process of controlling behaviour by manipulating consequences Law of effect states behaviour resulting in pleasing outcomes is likely to be repeated & behaviour resulting in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated E.g. employee works overtime; boss praises him; employee likely to work overtime again Difference with classical conditioning: outcome is deliberately set; requires to examine antecedents Rewards with no costs: smiles, greetings, compliments, special jobs, recognition, feedback, asking advice Reinforcement is the administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior Stphane Guerraz Langara OB2200 / 2008 7 Increasing Behaviour: Positive Reinforcement...
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2009 for the course BUSM 2220 taught by Professor Noel during the Winter '09 term at Langara.

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2200.2008.Ch6Motivation%20%26%20ReinforcementONLINE -...

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