Exam 3 Study Guides - Chs 12,13,14,15

Exam 3 Study Guides - Chs 12,13,14,15 - Chapter 12: Key...

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Chapter 12: Key Concepts (from Protein synthesis to end of Chapter): What is a codon, and which codon begins each mRNA transcript? In what ways is the genetic code 1) universal, 2) redundant, and 3) unambiguous? How do aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases assure the accuracy of transcription? Describe the sequence of events that characterizes initiation through termination of transcription. The tRNAs bring their amino acids into the ribosome; what has to happen to actually build a polypeptide from these amino acids? One way to regulate the rate of translation is through the action of polysomes. Explain. What are some of the ways in which antibiotics kill or control bacteria by interfering with protein synthesis? Give 2 examples of the control of protein activity through post-translational regulation. How do proteins get where they need to go, either inside or outside the cell? In what ways can proteins be regulated chemically after they've been synthesized? Why do germline mutations have the potential for much more profound effects than somatic mutations? Know the differences between silent, missense, nonsense mutations, and frameshift (and what causes them, and what their effects are). What kinds of chromosomal mutations were presented in class? What's GOOD about mutation? Chapters 13 and 14: KEY CONCEPTS Why aren't viruses affected by antibiotics?
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Exam 3 Study Guides - Chs 12,13,14,15 - Chapter 12: Key...

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