chapter 14 - Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Understanding...

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Understanding Earth Chapter 14: EXPLORING EARTH’S INTERIOR Grotzinger • Jordan • Press • Siever uppermost mantle) “weak” upper mantle)
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Summary Deducing the interior structure of the Earth from seismic studies: Body Waves: P and S-wave travel times Waves and Rays: Refraction and shadow zones. Reflection and layer boundaries. (Chemical) composition of the Earth: Crust, mantle, core. Heat and plate tectonics: Convection vs. conduction. Seismic tomography Earth’s magnetic field Paleomagnetism Where does this information on the interior of the Earth come from?
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(Rare) Samples of the Earth’s Interior Unusual volcanic diatremes bring exotic fragments (including diamonds) from the deep Earth (>100 km) to the surface Deepest underground mine is ~3.5 km (most < 1 km) Deepest drill hole is ~12 km (most oil & gas wells 3 to 5 km)
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Refraction of Waves Reflection of waves occurs where material contrasts are encountered (boundaries). Refraction (changes in direction occur at boundaries and as velocity changes smoothly (Snell’s Law) • New direction depends on seismic velocity change
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chapter 14 - Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Understanding...

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