chapter 17 - Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Understanding...

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Understanding Earth Chapter 17: THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE AND GROUNDWATER Grotzinger • Jordan • Press • Siever
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How much water is there? Models for the global hydrologic cycle, considers water in several reservoirs” . Over moderate time periods (years), inflow is assumed to equal outflow, and the size of each reservoir remains ~constant. Over longer times, the amount of water in reservoirs may vary according to global climate changes.
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Water Reservoirs on Earth
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The Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle models the movement of water from one reservoir to another (means and amount). Knowing flux and reservoir size, a residence time can be calculated – the time that a water molecule spends in each reservoir. km 3 / year
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Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air. Temperature decreases with elevation (~6°C/1000m or 3.3°F/1000ft) Orographic Precipitation
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Orographic Rain Shadow
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Precipitation Annual precipitation and runoff vary dramatically due to topography and position relative to the source of moisture. Most evaporation, and therefore most precipitation, occurs over the warm equatorial regions Polar regions (cold air holds little moisture), and areas on the lee side of major mountain ranges, tend to be very dry e.g. – on the Olympic Peninsula, the ocean side receives 200 inches of rain, the lee side…<18 inches per year
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• Half the global runoff is carried in the 70 largest rivers – half of that is carried in the Amazon alone. Rivers
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Surface Storage Surface runoff collects in wetlands and lakes These features smooth out the large changes in runoff after storms. These features are usually a direct reflection of the water table …(groundwater)
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A lot of water stored in soils and rocks
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Groundwater
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Groundwater relative to surface
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Groundwater That part of the subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation . • Occupies the pore
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2009 for the course GEO 80355 taught by Professor Kyle during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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chapter 17 - Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Understanding...

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