Final Exam Review
- during the classical era, there was need for a more simple and natural
opera. A style that reflected human emotions more realistically, which was known as
comic opera that flourished in Europe, known in Italy as opera buffa. This lighter genre
was the rising middle class’s response to the aristocratic form that was inevitably
supplanted. It was sung in the language of the audience rather than in Italian, and it had
lively, down-to-earth plots, rather then concerns of gods and myths. It also contained the
remarks of the buffo. It spread quickly and eventually culminated in the works of Mozart.
What: More simple and natural opera, with reflected human emotions and more realistic.
Also known as comic opera.
When: Classical era
Significance: incorporated middle class Classical music, with its predictable and clear
patterns, was meant to please and delight a varied audience, so that anyone could enjoy
the music regardless of socio-economic background or educational level.
Le nozze di Figaro
- (The Marriage of Figaro) Is a comic opera composed by Mozart with
the help of librettist Lorenzo de Ponte, during the classical era in Italy. With this opera
Mozart lifted comic opera to another dimension. In place of the stereotyped characters of
opera buffa, he created real human beings who come alive through his music. The story is
very complex, and is still considered one of the best.
- during the classical era, Haydn wrote this quartet. There is a return to
the theme several times (perhaps a modified rondo form). There is a very quirky ending.
Haydn wrote lots of quartets in E flat major. There is a prominence of the violin in this
When: Classical era
- during the classical era, this is the first movement in the multi-
This is the most highly organized and longest movement in the cycle,
and is usually in a fast tempo. This movement establishes a home key, then moves to
another key, and finally returns to the home key. Therefore the form can be regarded as a
drama between two contrasting key areas (Beethoven’s symphony no. 5). The opening
section of sonata-allegro form is the exposition, or statement, and then it goes into
conflict and action, which is the development. After the development, a bridge leads to
recapitulation, or restatement. Then the movement ends with a coda. No two sonata-
allegro pieces are exactly the alike, which gives infinite variety for the composer.
- classical era in Italy, form of music where the piano and violin are the most
common solo instruments, and it also features the interplay of the solo instrument and the
orchestra like in the Baroque era. The form has three movements, alternating fast-slow-
fast. One unique feature is the cadenza, a fanciful, improvisational solo that towards the
end, interrupts the movement. The first movement is the longest and most complex,
which is sometimes described as sonata-allegro form. The second movement is slow and
lyrical which feature songlike melodies. And the finale is very fast but shorter then the