chapter20_part2

chapter20_part2 - Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry 923 fuel,...

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Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry 923 fuel, since uranium is a reactant in the nuclear equation. Water is used for cooling by removing excess heat energy. It is also used in the form of steam in the steam/water cycle to produce the turning torque for the generator. 44. Answer/Explanation: It is easier for a nucleus to capture a neutron than a proton because of the respective charges. The nucleus is positively charged. A neutron, with no charge, would be easier to capture than a positive proton, which would experience coulombic charge repulsion. 45 . Answer: (a) 54 140 Xe (b) 41 104 Nb (c) 36 92 Kr Strategy and Explanation: Use the method described in Question 41. (a) 92 235 U + 0 1 n y x ? + 38 93 Sr + 3 0 1 n 235 + 1 = x + 93 + 3 × (1) = 236; 92 + 0 = y + 38 + 3 × (0) x = 140, and y = 54, so the isotope is: 54 140 Xe (b) 92 235 U + 0 1 n y x ? + 51 132 Sb + 3 0 1 n 235 + 1 = x + 132 + 3 × (1) = 236; 92 + 0 = y + 51 + 3 × (0) x = 101, and y = 41, so the isotope is: 41 101 Nb (c) 92 235 U + 0 1 n y x ? + 56 141 Ba + 3 0 1 n 235 + 1 = x + 141 + 3 × (1) = 236; 92 + 0 = y + 56 + 3 × (0) x = 92, and y = 36, so the isotope is: 36 92 Kr 46. Answer/Explanation: Three critical requirements must be met for controlled fusion. First, very high temperature must be attained for fusion to occur spontaneously. Second, the plasma must be confined long enough to release a net output of energy. Third, the energy must be recovered in some useable form. The energy required to maintain the high temperatures and magnetic containment devices exceeds that obtained in the fusion reaction, so commercial fusion reactions do not currently exist. 47 . Answer: 6.9 × 10 3 barrels Strategy and Explanation: This is a typical conversion factor question. 1.0 lb 235 U " 453.6 g 1 lb " 1 mol 235 U 235 g U " 2.1 " 10 10 kJ 1 mol 235 U " 1 barrel oil 5.9 " 10 6 kJ = 6.9 × 10 3 tons of coal 48. Answer: see equations and explanation below Strategy and Explanation: Use the method described in the solution to Question 15. Step (i) 92 238 U + 0 1 n 92 239 U Step (ii) 92 239 U " 1 0 e + 93 239 Np Step (iii) 93 239 Np " 1 0 e + 94 239 Pu Step (iv) 94 239 Pu + 0 1 n 2 0 1 n + two other isotopes + energy In this sequence, fissionable plutonium-239 is produced from non-fissionable uranium-238. The series produces as many neutrons as are needed to complete the series again. Thus the self-sustaining reaction process “breeds” the neutrons it needs to continue. More uranium-238 will have neutrons available creating more plutonium and energy. Each time fission occurs, more energy is produced.
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Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry 924 Effects of Nuclear Radiation 49 . Answer/Explanation: The unit “rad” is the measure of the amount of radiation absorbed. The unit “rem” includes a quality factor that better describes the biological impact of a radiation dose. The unit rem would be more appropriate when talking about the effects of an atomic bomb on humans. The unit gray (Gy) is 100 rad. 50.
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2009 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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chapter20_part2 - Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry 923 fuel,...

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