chapter5.forBB.2008

chapter5.forBB.2008 - Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions Chapter...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions Aqueous Solubility of Compounds • Not all compounds dissolve in water. • Solubility varies from compound to compound. Soluble ionic compounds dissociate. Most molecular compounds stay associated in water. Ions are solvated
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Soluble species (Table 5.1): Soluble species (Table 5.1): • All ammonium and group 1A (Na + , K + ,…. and NH 4 + salts) • All nitrates (NO 3 - ) • Most chlorides, bromides and iodides ± (exceptions: AgX, Hg 2 X 2 , and PbX 2 ; X = C l - , Br - , I - ). • Most sulfates (SO 4 2- ) ± (exceptions: CaSO 4 ,SrSO 4 , BaSO 4 , Ag 2 SO 4 , PbSO 4 , and Hg 2 SO 4 ) • All chlorates (C l O 3 - ) • All perchlorates (C l O 4 - ) • All acetates (CH 3 COO - ) Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds Insoluble species (table 5.1) Insoluble species (table 5.1) Type Exceptions • All phosphates (PO 4 3- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All carbonates (CO 3 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All hydroxides (OH - ) Group 1A, NH 4 + ± Sr(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 & Ca(OH) 2 are slightly soluble • All oxalates (C 2 O 4 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + • All oxides (O 2- ) Group 1A • All sulfides (S 2- ) Group 1A, NH 4 + ± MgS, CaS & BaS are slightly soluble. Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds
Background image of page 2
(a)Nitrates (soluble) AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 CdS Sb 2 S 3 PbS (NH 4 ) 2 S soluble insoluble (c) Sulfides (b) Hydroxides (insoluble) Cu(OH) 2 AgOH Aqueous Solubility of Ionic Compounds Exchange Reactions: Precipitation Three types of exchange reactions : ± Form a precipitate • an insoluble insoluble ionic compound •AgNO 3 (aq) + KC l (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgC AgC l (s) ± Form a molecular compound molecular compound • Often water •H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O ( l ) ± Form a molecular gas. gas. •2 HC l (aq) + Na 2 S(aq) 2 NaC l (aq) + H 2 S (g)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
When ionic solutions mix, a precipitate may form: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaC l (aq) AgC l (s (s ) + NaNO 3 (aq) Not all ions react The solubility rules help predict reactions. A reaction occurs if a product is insoluble. KNO 3 (aq) + NaC l (aq) No reaction Precipitation Reaction Products? Na + SO 4 2- Ba 2+ NO 3 - Precipitation Reactions Na 2 SO 4 (aq) and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) are mixed. Will they react? NaNO 3 and BaSO 4 . Insoluble? Yes Yes . BaSO 4 – A reaction occurs: Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaNO 3 (aq)
Background image of page 4
Soluble ionic compounds fully dissociate: AgNO 3 (aq) Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) KC l (aq) K + (aq) + C l - (aq) On mixing: Net Ionic Equations Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + K + (aq) + C l - (aq) AgC l (s) + K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) K + and NO 3 - appear on both sides ± NO 3 - and K + are spectator spectator ions. ± They are not directly involved in the reaction. Net ionic equation: Ag + (aq) + C l - (aq) AgC l (s) Net Ionic Equations General rules: General rules: 1. Write a balanced equation. 2. Solubility? 3. Dissociate soluble compounds. 4. Write the complete ionic equation . 5. Cancel spectators (ions appearing on both sides). 6. Check that the charges are balanced. not the same as checking for element balance!
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Net Ionic Equations Example Aqueous solutions of (NH 4 ) 2 S and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 react to give HgS and NH 4 NO 3.
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 07/15/2009 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

Page1 / 30

chapter5.forBB.2008 - Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions Chapter...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online