chapter12a.20008.forBB

chapter12a.20008.forBB - Chapter 12 Organic Chemicals and...

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Chapter 12: Organic Chemicals and Polymers Organic Chemicals 85% of all known compounds are organic. • C forms strong C C bonds and thousands of C’s can be linked together in a single molecule. • Organic compounds form structural isomers. • A large variety of functional groups can be attached to the carbon skeleton.
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Chiral Molecules A subtle kind of isomerism: chirality (“k ī -ra ra -l ə -t ē ”) • Non-superimposable molecules made from the same building blocks are chiral chiral . ± (Greek: cheir = hand) Non-superimposable mirror images. A pair of hands are chiral (as are the seashells)
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• Nonsuperimposable mirror images are called enantiomers enantiomers (Greek: enantion = opposite). •A chiral chiral center center occurs when 4 different groups bond to carbon. Chiral Molecules • Nonsuperimposable mirror images are called enantiomers enantiomers (Greek: enantion = opposite). chiral center occurs when 4 different groups bond to carbon. Chiral Molecules
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• Nonsuperimposable mirror images are called enantiomers enantiomers (Greek: enantion = opposite). •A chiral center occurs when 4 different groups bond to carbon. Chiral Molecules
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• Nonsuperimposable mirror images are called enantiomers enantiomers (Greek: enantion = opposite). •A chiral chiral center center occurs when 4 different groups bond to carbon. ± Often marked with an asterisk (*) F ±–C ±–H± OH CH 3 chiral center NOT a chiral center A molecule with: 1 chiral center has 2 enantiomers. n chiral centers has 2 n enantiomers. * Chiral Molecules Lactic Acid Enantiomers COOH HO HO H C COOH CH 3 C H CH 3 HO H COOH CH 3 OH H COOH CH 3 Top view:
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Chiral Molecules Enantiomers are labeled by their effect on polarized light:
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chapter12a.20008.forBB - Chapter 12 Organic Chemicals and...

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