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Archaeology_Exam_1_Notes

Archaeology_Exam_1_Notes - AR100 EXAM 1 Studyguide What is...

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AR100 EXAM 1: Studyguide  What is archaeology? Archaeology     - study of past life based on actual remains of civilization  and artifacts o Meticulous dating, discovery, uncovering work  o Theorize and modify hypothesis o Study of past cultures through excavation and lab analysis of  material remains Material Remains     -  archaeological record- recorded based on known  past changes Archaeological Record     - preservation and documenting of artifacts and  ecofacts and features o Ecofacts - remains of plant and environment not changed by  human o Artifacts - pure human material remains (portable) o Feature - houses- other non-portable artifacts Time categories: o Cyclic Notation     - changes n season, birth o Liner time     - prayer, working day o BC     - actual date o bc     - dates received from radio carbon isotope dating [C-14]   Written record came about ca. 3000 BC  o This was cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia  Context - the materials surrounding a site such as the artifacts and ecofacts. The environment that the site is in. Site - The accumulation of ecofacts/artifacts that represent the dwelling of a person or ceremonial places Palaeolithic (Stone Age)- advancement based on tool technology Lower Paleolithic: o 2.6 mil - ca. 200,000 (120.000) years ago o Went first Oldowan to Mousterian technology Middle Paleolithic: o 200, 000 (120.000) - 40.000 years ago
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o Went from Mousterian to blade technology Upper Paleolithic: o Upper 40.000 - 10,000 years ago o Blade to the ground stone tools TYPES OF HUMANS Australopithecus afarensis - lived 3.9-2.9 million years ago - Found in Hadar site in Kenya o Lucy 3.18-3.2 million years ago 40% complete skeleton of an adult female - Changing Environments and Bipedalilsm o To follow herds for meat o To carry young o Collecting plant foods - Brain size still did not evolve, same size as apes - Sexual dimorphism o Males bigger in size than females - Laetoli hominid footprints o Mary Leakey o Australopithecus afarensis dating (potassium argon) the range 3.7-3.5 million years o the footprints of 2 or 3 bipedal hominids + child (presumably afarensis) in a hardened volcanic ash o look almost like those of modern humans. Australopithecus boisei (Zinj) - 2.6-1.2 million years ago - Discovered by Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania - The first hominin to use stone tools o Oldowan tools - Brain volume is still small and not evolved - Sexual dimorphism (men are bigger than females) - Skull highly specialized in heavy chewing like and had several traits found in modern gorillas
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Homo rudolfensis - 2.4-1.9 MYA Homo habilis - 1.9-1.6 MYA o Handy Man b/c this was the first species to use stone tools Evidence of innovation- (Early Human Culture) o The creation and use of stone tools o New subsistence patterns o The occupation of new environmental zones These innovations show that they became increasingly successful at acquiring food and surviving predators.
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