Archaeology_Exam_1_Notes

Archaeology_Exam_1_Notes - AR100 EXAM 1: Studyguide What is...

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Unformatted text preview: AR100 EXAM 1: Studyguide What is archaeology? Archaeology - study of past life based on actual remains of civilization and artifacts o Meticulous dating, discovery, uncovering work o Theorize and modify hypothesis o Study of past cultures through excavation and lab analysis of material remains Material Remains - archaeological record- recorded based on known past changes Archaeological Record - preservation and documenting of artifacts and ecofacts and features o Ecofacts- remains of plant and environment not changed by human o Artifacts- pure human material remains (portable) o Feature- houses- other non-portable artifacts Time categories: o Cyclic Notation - changes n season, birth o Liner time - prayer, working day o BC - actual date o bc - dates received from radio carbon isotope dating [C-14] Written record came about ca. 3000 BC o This was cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia Context- the materials surrounding a site such as the artifacts and ecofacts. The environment that the site is in. Site- The accumulation of ecofacts/artifacts that represent the dwelling of a person or ceremonial places Palaeolithic (Stone Age)- advancement based on tool technology Lower Paleolithic: o 2.6 mil - ca. 200,000 (120.000) years ago o Went first Oldowan to Mousterian technology Middle Paleolithic: o 200, 000 (120.000) - 40.000 years ago o Went from Mousterian to blade technology Upper Paleolithic: o Upper 40.000 - 10,000 years ago o Blade to the ground stone tools TYPES OF HUMANS Australopithecus afarensis- lived 3.9-2.9 million years ago- Found in Hadar site in Kenya o Lucy 3.18-3.2 million years ago 40% complete skeleton of an adult female- Changing Environments and Bipedalilsm o To follow herds for meat o To carry young o Collecting plant foods- Brain size still did not evolve, same size as apes- Sexual dimorphism o Males bigger in size than females- Laetoli hominid footprints o Mary Leakey o Australopithecus afarensis dating (potassium argon) the range 3.7-3.5 million years o the footprints of 2 or 3 bipedal hominids + child (presumably afarensis) in a hardened volcanic ash o look almost like those of modern humans. Australopithecus boisei (Zinj)- 2.6-1.2 million years ago- Discovered by Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania- The first hominin to use stone tools o Oldowan tools- Brain volume is still small and not evolved- Sexual dimorphism (men are bigger than females)- Skull highly specialized in heavy chewing like and had several traits found in modern gorillas Homo rudolfensis- 2.4-1.9 MYA Homo habilis- 1.9-1.6 MYA o Handy Man b/c this was the first species to use stone tools Evidence of innovation- (Early Human Culture) o The creation and use of stone tools o New subsistence patterns o The occupation of new environmental zones These innovations show that they became increasingly...
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This note was uploaded on 07/16/2009 for the course AR 100 taught by Professor Danti during the Spring '09 term at BU.

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Archaeology_Exam_1_Notes - AR100 EXAM 1: Studyguide What is...

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