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Unformatted text preview: Archeology Exam 2 Notes Radiocarbon dating • Willard Libby announced the first age determinations from radioactive carbon in 1949. • radiocarbon dating, lies in the half-life of radioactive elements. • radioactive 14C starts decay into stable forms • half life 5700 years (5,568+30years) • Dates express as BP = ‘present’ 1950; e.g., 4,572+60 • After two half lives – one quarter left of the original • The amount of 14C present in the sample –time elapsed since the death of a living being Radiocarbon dating (2) Peopling of the New World The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia • 50,000 years ago in Indonesia and Philippines • sea levels lower than today • bounty of fish and shellfish, game, wild plants • open water passage of Sahul -98 km (60 mil) • Modern humans crossing some in sort of sea craft; inter-visibility between the islands • 40,000 New Guinea and Australia – site Lake Mungo • shell middens and campsites-hearths The First Americans • The initial emigrants were few in number • Sites are quite rare • the dates are usually debated • 15,000-9,000 years ago • the Bering Bridge joined Siberia and Alaska during the last glacial maximum • as the glaciers begun to retreat ca. 12,000 the ice free corridor open for people to move south • land bridge possible to cross during last 100,000 years • 35,000 (?) Pedra Furada in Brazil • 31,000 layer (?) in Monte Verde in Chile Americas- settlement after 15,000 years ago • Meadocraft rock shelter in Pennsylvania 17,000 years ago • Topper site in South Carolina 14, 000 years ago • Monte Verde in Chile 11,000 BC • after 9000 BC many sites • Early Human Settlement of Siberia and Beringia • 17,000 (13,000 years ago) sites - Uski and D’katai • mammoth and ox bones • tools-flaked spear points, burins, microblades • 9,000 years D’uktai style microliths in Alaska • Ne-nana complex –– earliest human settlements in Alaska before D’uktai finds • settlements beneath the Bering Strait Paleoindian Period • In North America from the beginning of the Holocene. • Paleoindian spearpoints date to between 11,000 and 9,000 years ago. • The best-known points Clovis, after the original excavation spot in eastern New Mexico. The Clovis People • 9200-8900 BP during the Paleoindian period • Clovis -site in New Mexico • Clovis tradition~ to Nenana complex • Clovis fluted point (pressure flaking) • associated with mammoth and bison kills, but also small game • highly mobile occupied vast region • the origin of Clovis people unresolved • The Gault site -Clovis site in Texas Folsom • 11,200-10,900 BP Clovis sites • 10,900 BP – Folsom sites only in the Great Plains • Folsom sites in New Mexico –23 bison (Bison antiquus) • Mammoths became extinct, bison hunting intensified • Animals driven in arroyo, but also individually hunted • Kimmswick • Big game extinction • Why big-game extinction? Climatic change and/or overkill?Why big-game extinction?...
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This note was uploaded on 07/16/2009 for the course AR 100 taught by Professor Danti during the Spring '09 term at BU.
- Spring '09