Archeology_Exam_2_Notes

Archeology_Exam_2_Notes - Archeology Exam 2 Notes...

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Archeology Exam 2 Notes Radiocarbon dating Willard Libby announced the first age determinations from radioactive carbon in 1949. radiocarbon dating, lies in the half-life of radioactive elements. radioactive 14C starts decay into stable forms half life 5700 years (5,568+30years) Dates express as BP = ‘present’ 1950; e.g., 4,572+60 After two half lives – one quarter left of the original The amount of 14C present in the sample –time elapsed since the death of a living being Radiocarbon dating (2) Peopling of the New World The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia 50,000 years ago in Indonesia and Philippines sea levels lower than today bounty of fish and shellfish, game, wild plants open water passage of Sahul -98 km (60 mil) Modern humans crossing some in sort of sea craft; inter-visibility between the islands 40,000 New Guinea and Australia – site Lake Mungo shell middens and campsites-hearths The First Americans The initial emigrants were few in number Sites are quite rare the dates are usually debated 15,000-9,000 years ago the Bering Bridge joined Siberia and Alaska during the last glacial maximum as the glaciers begun to retreat ca. 12,000 the ice free corridor open for people to move south land bridge possible to cross during last 100,000 years 35,000 (?) Pedra Furada in Brazil 31,000 layer (?) in Monte Verde in Chile Americas- settlement after 15,000 years ago Meadocraft rock shelter in Pennsylvania 17,000 years ago Topper site in South Carolina 14, 000 years ago Monte Verde in Chile 11,000 BC after 9000 BC many sites Early Human Settlement of Siberia and Beringia 17,000 (13,000 years ago) sites - Uski and D’katai mammoth and ox bones
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tools-flaked spear points, burins, microblades 9,000 years D’uktai style microliths in Alaska Ne-nana complex –– earliest human settlements in Alaska before D’uktai finds settlements beneath the Bering Strait Paleoindian Period In North America from the beginning of the Holocene. Paleoindian spearpoints date to between 11,000 and 9,000 years ago. The best-known points Clovis, after the original excavation spot in eastern New Mexico. The Clovis People 9200-8900 BP during the Paleoindian period Clovis -site in New Mexico Clovis tradition~ to Nenana complex Clovis fluted point (pressure flaking) associated with mammoth and bison kills, but also small game highly mobile occupied vast region the origin of Clovis people unresolved The Gault site -Clovis site in Texas Folsom 11,200-10,900 BP Clovis sites 10,900 BP – Folsom sites only in the Great Plains Folsom sites in New Mexico –23 bison (Bison antiquus) Mammoths became extinct, bison hunting intensified Animals driven in arroyo, but also individually hunted Kimmswick Big game extinction Why big-game extinction? Climatic change and/or overkill?
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