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Archeology_Exam_III_Study_Guide - Arch Exam 3 Study Guide...

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Arch Exam 3 Study Guide Megaliths of Europe Grønsalen, Denmark This long barrow from the Late Stone Age 10 m wide and with its length of 100 m Denmark's longest burial ground. 145 enormous stones encircles the barrow. 3 chambers inside Megaliths: Menhirs, Henges, Dolmens Menhirs - single or linear arrangement of stones e.g, Carnac, France -3000 standing stones - 6km measure moon cycles and predict eclipses Megaliths Menhirs, Henges, Dolmens Henges- enclosed circles, not all with stones, instead some have timber structures; e.g, Stonehenge- astronomical significance Megaliths: Menhirs, Henges, Dolmens Dolmen-megalithic tomb with chamber+roof, often burial under mound Megaliths Built by farming communities, no carts, no metal tools some have decorated with spirals, circles- astronomical alignments-solstice and equinoxes -sun rays pass through specially constructed openings; Engraved daggers →masculine authority megalithic art and altered state of consciousness- hallucinogens and hypnosis-part of rituals Stonehenge, southern England ‘the world’s most famous prehistoric monument’ interpreted in 1620 - as a provincial Roman temple; in the 18th c. -as a Druid sanctuary 3000-1500 BC -construction+rebuilding constructed entrance - ‘avenue’ to the river Avon - many prehistoric burials Stonehenge- Construction phases A) circular ditch and bank 100 m (33 feet) -inside 56 “Aubrey” holes -? B) addition of a timber pillars inside woodhenge C) 2500-1600 BC -- timber replaced sandstone pillars (50 tons) dragged from 30 km away- trilithons (5) - 2 upright pillars + crosspiece;
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by water -central stones-volcanic dolerite -250 km away D) more pillars raised inside the circle Elaboration and refurbishment ca. 2000 BC Associated with archaeological Bell Beaker culture Stonehenge bluestones (45 left) Stonehenge For e.g., C phase – massive corporate endeavourer 18 million hours of work 300 people working for 2 years “Constructed landscape” Why built? → as monuments for the ancestors Avebury, another megalith complex close to Stonehenge larger in size Cities and Early States Mesopotamia Uruk and Ur Please read additional pages from the text book (431-440) Mesopotamia-Sumer The world’s first states evolved in Mesopotamia temples became key institutions - an economic role (not seen in e.g., Mesoamerican temples) Uruk the early urban center near the Euphrates Large-scale irrigation (network of canals) a key feature of early Mesopotamian civilization. The earliest known written documents come from Uruk (=Warka) The Era of History begins Cuneiform writing Later pictographic tables develop into cuneiform (similar to traditional Chinese writing) invented the earliest known form of writing called cuneiform, by 3200 BC cuneus=wedge with a instrument- called a stylus Mesopotamia By 4500 B.C., southern Mesopotamia was dotted with towns and public buildings –the Ubaid period (5300-4100 BC) based on irrigation farming and the economy produced enough food
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Archeology_Exam_III_Study_Guide - Arch Exam 3 Study Guide...

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