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MOOD DISORDERS Part I 1. (UNIPOLAR ) DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS - Major Depressive Episode - Dysthymia 2. BIPOLAR DISORDERS - Bipolar I Disorder - Bipolar II Disorder - Cyclothymia 1. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS * Depression is a “S pectrum Disorder (from feeling blue all the way to psychotic or suicidal depression) * Different kinds of depressive symptoms can be seen: - Emotional Symptoms (e.g., sadness, crying) - Cognitive Symptoms (e.g., poor memory & concentration; inability to make decisions) - Physical Symptoms (e.g., low energy, decreased appetite, sleep, sex drive) * Descriptions given by sufferers of depression, e.g.: “A dark whole I cannot crawl out of;” “I’m a living dead person;” “I feel empty, void”, “I feel nothing, I can’t even cry;” “Everything is in slow motion;” “I can’t think any more;” “I’m useless;” “I’m a fraud.” * Diagnosing depression in the elderly (depression vs. dementia) * Diagnosing depression in children and adolescents MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER (MDD) DSM-IV Diagnosis of MDD: * MDD entails a history of one or more major depressive episodes * Symptoms are severe enough to cause clinically significant distress or impairment
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DSM-IV Definition of “Major Depressive Episode”: * For at least two weeks , at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms have to me met. Either symptom (1) or (2) have to be met. 1. Depressed mood most of the day 2. Diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities previously enjoyed ( anhedonia ) 3. Significant weight loss or weight gain, or significant change in appetite 4. Insomnia or hypersomnia 5. Psychomotor retardation or psychomotor agitation, nearly every day
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