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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 151 - 4/8/2009
Chapter 3: Social Cognition (continued) Chapter 4: Social Perception CONTROLLED SOCIAL COGNITION: HIGH-EFFORT THINKING
Controlled Thinking Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, & effortful. Racial prejudice can result from either automatic thinking or conscious, deliberative thinking Maryland State Patrol Records, 1995 Police searched cars driven by Black-Americans MORE than cars driven by White-Americans But they were equally likely to be carrying drugs! Controlled Thinking: Counterfactuals
Imagining "what might have been..." Mental simulations of alternative realities
-- counter to the facts Some police departments have a policy of profiling black & Hispanic motorists (Drummond, 1999) Emotional amplification Emotional Easily available counterfactuals amplify emotional reactions to events Counterfactual Thinking
Attending a rock concert, Debbie momentarily occupied seat 2047, but moved when a tall person sat in front of her. Another person then sat in seat 2047. At intermission, the person sitting in seat 2047 was randomly chosen (by number of seat currently occupied) to win a trip around the world for two. Attending a rock concert, Lana momentarily occupied seat 1001, but moved when a tall person sat in front of her. Another person then sat in seat 1001. The music was incredibly loud. About half way through the concert the sound vibrations caused a ceiling tile to brake loose and fall directly on seat 1001, squishing that person like a bug. Counterfactual Thinking Upward counterfactuals Thoughts about how reality could be better. Leads to negative feelings: reality is not as good as an alternative Thoughts about how reality could be worse. Leads to positive feelings: reality is not as bad as it could be Downward counterfactual Counterfactuals (upward or downward) are in direction of closest category 1 Imagine that you are getting a test back in a class. The professor has posted the grading scale on the board: 94+, A; 8486, B; 9093, A-; 8083, B-; 8789, B+; and so forth. Counterfactual Category Boundaries Example: Exam grades Counterfactual Category Boundaries
Upward: "I almost..." Negative emotion less satisfied Olympic (dis)satisfaction
P's watched videos, DV=Ratings of Athletes' Happiness BB+ Downward: "At least I..." Positive emotion more satisfied "C" "B" "A" Counterfactual Summary
1. Number Quiz
._____________ High Guess
_____________ (1) counterfactuals can moderate satisfaction with outcomes (2) proximity to category boundaries lead to upward or downward counterfactuals (3) satisfaction is determined both by what actually happens, AND what could have happened of times the New York Yankees won the World Series between its inception in 1903 and 1995 2. Median income for all United States households in 1998 3. Year the computer floppy disk was invented by IBM 4. Mean number of days per year where the minimum temperature is below freezing in Juneau, Alaska 5. Air miles from New York City to Miami ._____________ _____________ ._____________ _____________ ._____________ _____________ ._____________ _____________ 2 Using controlled thinking to improve judgment
Overconfidence Having too much confidence in the accuracy of judgments. Overconfidence
On avg, people are overconfident Confidence positively associated w/ accuracy Confidence positively associated w/ overconfidence Overconfidence When people are certain (100%), they are typically overconfident (e.g., 70-85% correct) As people get more info, confidence increases even if accuracy doesn't Not related to intelligence Chapter 4: Social Perception
Social Perception How we form impressions of and make inferences about other people.
We are fascinated with other people and enjoy figuring them out! E.g., Reality TV
Source of image: Microsoft Office Online. Facial Expressions of Emotion
Are facial expressions of emotion universal?
anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, & sadness Culture and Nonverbal Communication
Display rules dictate what kinds of emotional expressions people are supposed to show All humans: express these emotions in the same way interpret them with equal accuracy
Source of images: Microsoft Office Online. Source of images: Microsoft Office Online. 3 Culture and Nonverbal Communication
Examples of display rule differences: Male vs. Female emotional displays in America Japanese vs. Western women and smiling American eye contact American personal space Emblems, e.g., W and "V" for bird Attributions Why did you do poorly on the exam? Causal explanations Internal vs. External factors Stability Source of image: Microsoft Office Online. Causal Attribution: Answering the "Why" Question
According to attribution theory, we try to determine why people do what they do This helps us understand and predict our social world. Attribution Theory (Heider)
We can make one of two causal attributions: An internal, dispositional attribution or An external, situational attribution Why did Joe kick Fido? Internal Attribution The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way b/c of something about the person External Attribution The inference that a person is behaving a certain way b/c of something about the situation The Covariation Model: Internal vs External Attributions
Observe behavior across actors, targets, situations. Make an internal or external attribution. We make such choices by using info on: 4 Consensus
Info about whether other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does. Distinctiveness Info about whether one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli. Consistency Info about whether the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across circumstances. Kelley's Covariation Model Common patterns Correspondence Bias Concerned with internal attributions Behavior is perceived to reflect underlying corresponding disposition Ignore situational constraints Jones & Harris: The Castro Study
60 Perceivers still made internal attributions even when subjects had no choice! 50 40 30 20 10 0 Choice No Choice AntiCastro ProCastro Why does it happen? Behavior "engulfs the field" Salience (Taylor & Fiske) Situational attributions require more effort Anchor & Adjust, Gilbert 5 Actor/Observer Effect See our own behavior as variable Prefer situational attributions See others' behavior as stable Prefer dispositional attributions Why does A-O Effect Occur? Salience
Look at other--the person is salient Look out from ourselves-situation is salient Self-Serving Attributions
Explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors, and Explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors. Availability of info
Actors know how they Protects our self-esteem! 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/16/2009 for the course PSC 151 taught by Professor Pickett during the Spring '07 term at UC Davis.
- Spring '07
- The Land