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Unformatted text preview: 1 Psychology 151 4/22/2009 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Attitudes: Attitudes: Attitudes: Attitudes: Influencing Thoughts and Feelings Influencing Thoughts and Feelings Influencing Thoughts and Feelings Influencing Thoughts and Feelings THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF ATTITUDES Attitudes Attitudes Attitudes Attitudes Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas. People are not neutral observers of the world. They evaluate what they encounter. They form attitudes. Why People Have Attitudes Attitudes are evaluations (like or dislike) Can be immediate & unconscious Attitudes help us deal with complex world Attitudes are helpful in making choices Components of attitudes: Examplechoosing a new car Affect How do you feel about it? Emotional reactions If you are a U.S. autoworker examining a new foreign- made model, maybe you feel anger & resentment. Cognitions What do you think & believe about the cars attributes? Logical Good gas mileage makes it efficient Behaviors How do you behave toward the attitude object? Do you test-drive the car and actually buy one? Where do ATTITUDES come from? Genetic influences Identical twins vs. fraternal twins Inherit temperament & personality from parents, making certain attitudes more/less likely Experiences Where do ATTITUDES come from? Classical Conditioning When a neutral object (CS) is repeatedly paired with emotional object (UCS) Neutral object takes on affective properties of emotional object Operant Conditioning Behavior is directly rewarded or 2 Where do ATTITUDES come from? Mere-exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968) Repeated exposure enhances positive evaluation Only if object is at least neutral initially Familiarity breeds liking Ps gave more positive meanings & ratings w/ more...
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