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Unformatted text preview: 1 Psychology 151 4/29/09 Chapter 9: Group Processes Chapter 9: Group Processes Chapter 9: Group Processes Chapter 9: Group Processes What Is a Group? Group Group Group Group Two or more people who interact and are interdependent Source of image: Microsoft Of ice Online. Social Roles Social Roles Social Roles Social Roles Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave. Milgram - Why Obey? Conformity - Normative Influence Strong social norm to obey authority Foot-in-the-door Dissonance must be reduced Cant undo past behavior or decide Im bad Justify the shocks Blame the Victim Many complain about how poor the learner is The power of social roles, group cohesion, the situation Social Facilitation Triplett (1898) Reel lines more quickly with others present Zajonc (1965) Presence of others increases arousal Arousal enhances dominant response Accessible, simple, highly practiced The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks & worse on complex tasks, when in the presence of others Social Facilitation & Inhibition Dual Influence of Arousal If task is easy Performance improves Dominant response likely correct If task is hard Performance suffers Dominant response likely incorrect Zajonc (1969): Social Facilitation Basic principle of animal behavior Cockroaches tested on their speed of escape from a bright light Run to other end of runway Cockroach spectators or not Perform faster with spectators But only if path is simple 2 Theories of Social Facilitation Mere Presence: All it takes is the presence of others, nothing more. Others cause us to become alert. Evaluation Apprehension: In addition to their presence, others seen as potential evaluators Distraction-Conflict Theory: Others distract us from the task (no different from any other distraction)....
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- Spring '07