Chapter 7 - Multiple-Choice Questions 1) _, a common...

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Multiple-Choice Questions 1) __________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks. A) Calcite B) Orthoclase C) Quartz D) Biotite Answer: C Diff: 1 2) Which major component of detrital sedimentary rocks only rarely occurs as a primary mineral in igneous rocks? A) clays B) carbonates C) quartz D) ferromagnesian minerals Answer: A Diff: 1 3) Zircon and tourmaline are dense, highly insoluble, chemically stable, minor minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. In which sedimentary rock might you expect to find these minerals concentrated? A) sandstone lithified from quartz-rich beach sand B) limestone representing lithified coral-reef carbonates C) a thin, upper, mudstone portion of a thick graywacke bed with graded bedding D) evaporite deposits of gypsum and salt Answer: A Diff: 1 Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name. A. sand B. clay and fine silt C. gravel D. all clay sediment 4) _____ sandstone Answer: A Diff: 1 5) _____ shale Answer: D Diff: 1 6) _____ conglomerate Answer: C Diff: 1
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7) _____ mudstone Answer: B Diff: 1 8) Compaction is a very important part of the lithification process for which of the following sediments? A) gravel B) sand C) mud D) cobble Answer: C Diff: 1 9) A cherty limestone would contain which major constituents? A) iron oxide, calcite B) silica; iron oxide C) clay minerals D) silica; calcite Answer: D Diff: 1 10) Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite? A) detrital sedimentary rocks B) varieties of dolostone C) varieties of coal and peat D) evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks Answer: D Diff: 1 11) __________ sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock. A) Quartz-rich B) Lignitic C) Arkosic D) Oolitic Answer: C Diff: 1 12) __________ cement produces bright-red and yellow colors in some sandstone. A) Clay B) Calcite C) Quartz D) Iron oxide Answer: D Diff: 1
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13) What is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks? A) sizes of the sand grains B) degree of lithification C) bedding or stratification D) compaction of the mud and clay Answer: C Diff: 1 14) Which of the following would retain the most detailed impressions of fossilized organisms? A) very fine-grained volcanic ash deposited in an ancient lake B) an ancient, rainforest lateritic soil buried by basalt lava flows C) quartz-rich sand deposited in shallow, beachfront environment D) gravel and sand stream deposits laid down during flash floods Answer: A Diff: 1 15) What is a bittern? A) an evaporate sedimentary rock rich in gypsum and halite B) the dark-gray, clay-rich matrix of an arkose C) residual brine left after precipitation of halite D) an algal limestone mound deposited in an atoll lagoon Answer: C Diff: 1 16) __________ are further concentrated in a residual brine after NaCl is crystallized. A) Iron, sodium, and chlorine
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Chapter 7 - Multiple-Choice Questions 1) _, a common...

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