Origins of the Element Names_color

Origins of the Element Names_color - Origins of the Element...

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Origins of the Element Names Elements Named for Color Contents: #17 Cl , #24 Cr , #55 Cs , #53 I , #49 In , #77 Ir , #45 Rh , #37 Rb , #81 Tl The four Siberian Beresof gold mines had been worked for gold, copper, silver and lead since 1752. Small amounts of a red mineral were obtained accompanying lead ore. Johann Gottlob Lehmann investigated this mineral known as crocoite or crocoisite in 1766 and found it produced an emerald-green solution when dissolved in muriatic acid. He died the next year when a retort containing arsenic burst upon heating. In 1797 Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829 shown at left), noting its beauty, scarcity, value equal to gold, and several contradictory chemical analyses, determined to find the correct composition of crocoite. Vauquelin was born to a farm laborer in Normandy, made rapid progress in school, and at age 14 became a dishwasher and assistant in an apothecary. He went to Paris with a letter of introduction and worked for several apothecary shops. One pharmacy was owned by a cousin of the chemist, Fourcroy. Hearing of Vauquelin's interest in chemistry, Fourcroy hired the boy as his assistant. Vauquelin lived with Fourcroy and his unmarried sisters who provided motherly care. Vauquelin continued to rapidly learn physics, chemistry and philosophy while assisting Fourcroy with chemistry and the teaching of Fourcroy's students. Because of the French Revolution, Vauquelin left Paris in 1793, served as pharmacist in a military hospital, then returned to teach chemistry at the Central School of Public Works which later became the École Polytechnique. Vauquelin boiled pulverized crocoite with two parts potash obtaining a yellow solution. The solution formed a beautiful red precipitate with a mercury salt, and a yellow precipitate with lead. Adding tin muriatic turned the solution green. In 1798 he precipitated lead with muriatic acid, dried the green solid, then cooked it for half an hour in a charcoal crucible with charcoal dust. Upon cooling he discovered a network or gray, metallic needles weighing 1/3 the original. Because of the many colors of its compounds, Fourcroy and Haüy suggested the name Chromium(Cr = #24): Khroma (Greek) for color. Vauquelin later became inspector of mines and professor of assaying at the School of Mines where he continued to live under the care of the Fourcroy sisters until their deaths. Vauquelin, and Klaproth in Germany, became the top analytical chemists of their day. Pyrolusite was a half mineral which had been used for centuries to give a violet color to glass and pottery. Bergman thought the
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mineral, also called magnesia nigri, was the calx of a metal but he was unable to isolate the metal. Bergman suggested the problem to his friend Carl Scheele (1742-1786 shown at right) who in 1774 reported three years of experiments on pyrolusite. Among other discoveries, he noted that when he let finely ground pyrolusite (MnO 2 ) stand with the spiritus salis (also called
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Origins of the Element Names_color - Origins of the Element...

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