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A Review of Chemical Oxidation Technology

A Review of Chemical Oxidation Technology - A Review of...

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A Review of Chemical Oxidation Technology Introduction The use of chemical oxidation for the in-situ remediation of soils and groundwater impacted with Constituents of Concern (COCs) is a technology that has seen significant development and application in the past decade with numerous site applications in the last five years. Three chemicals are typically utilized as oxidants: Hydrogen peroxide in the form of Fenton's reagent Potassium or sodium permanganate Ozone Each has advantages and disadvantages, as does the use of chemical oxidation technology in general. There are numerous recent reviews of field application of the technology (EPA, 1998 and ESTCP, 1999). The purpose of this review is to assess the utilization of in-situ chemical oxidation in general and the use of these three chemical oxidants in particular. In addition these are powerful chemicals and care should be taken with their shipping, storage and use. Chemical oxidation has had a long history of application in the field of waste water treatment. Hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate, ozone and combinations of ozone with other oxidants are all chemical oxidation systems that have found application for the treatment of waste water. One of the key design issue for the application of chemical oxidation to waste water is the total carbon load over and beyond that represented by the COCs that are targeted in that waste stream. The chemical oxidants will react with and be consumed by all constituents in the waste water stream not just the COCs. In the case of the in situ treatment of groundwater there are also consuming reactions associated with the geologic mineral matrix. In many instances this adversely impacts the cost of application to the point of being impractical. The general value of in-situ chemical oxidation technologies resides in two areas: first the treatment of residual free product and secondly reduction of overall remediation time frames. Specifically in-situ oxidation is likely to be selected for difficult applications that include: Low-permeability soils; Highly stratified soils; Low solubility compounds; High concentrations of highly soluble organics (such as ketones, alcohols or MTBE) that would be difficult to treat with conventional surface treatment technology (air stripping or activated carbon). Target compounds with low in-situ degradation kinetic constants; and Dense, non-aqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL).
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From an economic perspective chemical oxidants are usually only practical in limited areas, typically near or in source zones. For the purpose of this review it is important to differentiate types of sources zones: Primary source zones refer to areas that have been exposed to free phase NAPL.
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