PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW

PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW - PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW I....

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PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW I. Study Hints for the Student A. Review basic algebra but don't be afraid that the mathematics will be too hard. B. Become very familiar with the notations in the book. C. Don't fall behind. The material in the book is cumulative and getting behind is a bad idea. D. Work problems! II. Mathematical Notation A. The symbols X (capital letter X ) and sometimes Y will be used as symbols to represent variables measured in the study. 1. For example, X could stand for age, or height, or IQ in any given study. 2. To indicate a specific observation a subscript on X will be used; e.g., X 2 would mean the second observation of the X variable. B. The summation sign (Σ) is used to indicate the fact that the scores following the summation sign are to be added up. The notations above and below the Σ sign are used to indicate the first and last scores to be summed. C. Summation Rules. 1. The sum of the values of a variable plus a constant is equal to the sum of the values of the variable plus N times the constant. In equation form: 2. The sum of the values of a variable minus a constant is equal to the sum of the variable minus N times the constant. In equation form:
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3. The sum of a constant times the values of a variable is equal to the constant times the sum of the values of the variable. In equation form: 4. The sum of a constant divided into the values of a variable is equal to the constant divided into the sum of the values of the variable. In equation form: III. Measurement Scales A. All measurement scales have one or more of the following three attributes. 1. Magnitude. 2. Equal intervals between adjacent units. 3. Absolute zero point. B. The nominal scale is the lowest level of measurement. It is more qualitative than quantitative. Nominal scales are comprised of elements that have been classified as belonging to a certain category. For example, whether someone's sex is male or female. Can only determine whether A = B or A B . C. Ordinal scales possess a relatively low level of the property of magnitude. The rank order of people according to height is an example of an ordinal scale. One does not know how much taller the first rank person is over the second rank person. Can determine whether A > B , A = B or A < B . D.
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PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW - PSY 3204 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW I....

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