06 - Categories & Concepts Categorisation ➔Our everyday decisions rely on quick categorisation abilities. We do this using: ◆Attention helps focus finite mental resources on key parts of an active scene ◆Memory helps recall specific thoughts and behaviours which are appropriate to current needs ◆Cognitive abilities to put people, objects and ideas into categories and concepts ●Helps efficiently process through the incoming data stream and make appropriate responses ➔We quickly process incoming stimuli by organising them into categories ◆Without the cognitive ability to categorise, every decision becomes overwhelming because every sensory experience would be completely unique ●You’d be unable to draw connections with the past and are forced to make unique decisions on even the most routine actions ➔Categorisation is ever-occurring and often intuitive ◆You are constantly categorising experiences to guide decision making Functions of Categorisation ➔Four basic functions of categorisation: 1.Classification allows you to treat objects that appear differently as together ●i.e. different coloured apples, but are all still classified as apples 2.Understanding, which identifies the intentions of a situation ●i.e. two people shouting in a private conflict, you understand to not share your opinion 3.Predicting, which uses past experiences to know what to expect ●i.e. seeing a dog, you can predict it likes to be scratched behind its ears and wags its tail when happy 4.Communication, which uses specific words to describe ideas efficiently ●Words often refer to some type of category or concept (i.e. furniture, sport, cat) ●You can see the extent of this automatic categorisation process when people of specialised fields speak with each other using technical jargon Understanding our surroundings Predicting future events Helps us navigate the current situation Helps us anticipate future outcomes or events Categorizes the current situations Categorize the current situation and compares it to a similar past situation Doesn’t use prior knowledge Uses prior knowledge ➔Categorisation can sometimes feel effortless ◆Happens automatically, operating outside our conscious awareness ➔Illusion of the Expert: the feeling that a task must be simple for everyone because it is simple for oneself ◆More susceptible for simple things ➔Categorisation is a very complex field with a number of conflicting theories seeking to explain the ease with which humans are able to categorise
Rules ➔Can categorisation rely on defining simple rules? ◆i.e. you think that all turtles ⇒when you see something with a shell, you say it’s a turtle ➔Dr. Lee Brooks, who was a professor of psych as McMaster, asked, “Are some set of features you can use to identify a new member of a given category?” ◆For simple categories, we are more susceptible to the Illusion of the Expert. A greater % of people report that they can come up with a simple classification rule ◆For more complex categories (like fruit and
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- Categorization, Categories, concept learning, Categories & Concepts