PsychologyVCE3&47E.pdf - PSYCHOLOGY VCE UNITS 3 AND 4 SEVENTH EDITION John GRIVAS Nicole LETCH Seventh edition published 2019 by John Wiley Sons

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Unformatted text preview: PSYCHOLOGY VCE UNITS 3 AND 4 SEVENTH EDITION John GRIVAS Nicole LETCH Seventh edition published 2019 by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064 First edition published 1996 Second edition published 1999 Third edition published 2004 Fourth edition published 2010 Fifth edition published 2013 Sixth edition published 2017 Typeset in 10/12 pt ITC Veljovic Std Bremar Holdings Pty Ltd, 2019, 2017, 2013, 2010, 2004, 1999, 1996 The moral rights of the author have been asserted. ISBN: 978-0-7303-5522-9 Reproduction and communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL). Reproduction and communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher. Trademarks Jacaranda, the JacPLUS logo, the learnON, assessON and studyON logos, Wiley and the Wiley logo, and any related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States, Australia and in other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Cover and internal design images: © SFIO CRACHO; Rawpixel.com; optimarc; Syda Productions; Lisa F. Young; kurhan/Shutterstock.com Illustrated by various artists, Aptara and Wiley Composition Services Typeset in India by Aptara Printed in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS Preface...............................................................................................vii Inferential statistics...............................................................103 Contents matrix: chapter coverage of the study design......xii Conclusions and generalisations......................................104 About eBookPLUS and studyON..............................................xvi  Reliability and validity in research..............................106 Acknowledgements......................................................................xvii Reliability...................................................................................106 Validity........................................................................................106 Ethics in psychological research and reporting..........110 National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research.................................................................... 110 Role of ethics committees................................................... 112 CHAPTER 1 Australian Privacy Principles............................................ 113 Research methods in psychology�����������3 Role of the experimenter.................................................... 113 Defining psychology and its subject matter................4 Use of animals in psychological research................. 116 Mental processes and behaviour.........................................5 Reporting conventions.......................................................... 120 Written report........................................................................... 121 Psychology as a scientific study..........................................6 Poster report............................................................................. 122 Steps in psychological research...........................................7 Step 1 Identify the research topic.......................................7 Chapter summary.........................................................127 Step 2 Formulate the research hypothesis......................7 Key terms..........................................................................129 Step 3 Design the research.....................................................8 Learning checklist....................................................... 130 Step 4 Collect the data..............................................................9 Chapter test......................................................................133 PSYCHOLOGY — RESEARCH METHODS Step 5 Analyse the data...........................................................9 Step 6 Interpret and evaluate the results.........................9 Step 7 Report the research and findings........................ 10 Research methods...................................................................... 13 Sample and population.......................................................... 14 Research hypothesis................................................................ 15 Experimental research........................................................... 17 Advantages and limitations of experimental research........................................................................................59 Cross-sectional studies...........................................................66 Advantages and limitations of cross-sectional studies............................................................................................66 Case studies................................................................................69 Advantages and limitations of case studies................... 71 Observational studies..............................................................72 Advantages and limitations of observational studies.....75 Self-reports................................................................................... 81 Advantages and limitations of self-reports....................86 Types of data.................................................................................89 Primary and secondary data................................................89 Qualitative and quantitative data......................................90 Organising, presenting and interpreting data..........94 Descriptive statistics................................................................94 Unit 3 HOW DOES EXPERIENCE AFFECT BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL PROCESSES? CHAPTER 2 Nervous system functioning���������������������� 143 Roles of different divisions................................................ 145 Central nervous system....................................................... 145 Peripheral nervous system................................................. 149 Conscious and unconscious responses to sensory stimuli........................................................................... 158 The spinal reflex..................................................................... 159 Role of the neuron.................................................................. 162 Dendrites....................................................................................163 Axon.............................................................................................163 Myelin.........................................................................................163 Axon terminals........................................................................164 Role of neurotransmitters...................................................166 Neurotransmission as a lock-and-key process...........168 iii How interference to neurotransmitter function can affect nervous system functioning...................... 171 Parkinson’s disease................................................................ 171 Chapter summary........................................................ 180 Key terms..........................................................................181 Learning checklist........................................................182 Chapter test..................................................................... 183 CHAPTER 3 Stress as a psychobiological process��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 189 Eustress and distress............................................................... 191 Sources of stress........................................................................ 193 Daily pressures........................................................................ 193 Life events.................................................................................196 Acculturative stress................................................................202 Major stressors.........................................................................207 Catastrophes..............................................................................209 Stress as a biological process............................................. 214 Fight–flight–freeze response.............................................. 214 Role of cortisol......................................................................... 217 Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome..........................222 Strengths and limitations of Selye’s GAS...................... 224 Stress as a psychological process....................................228 Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping..............................................................228 Strengths and limitations of the Lazarus and Folkman model.......................................................................230 Strategies for coping with stress.....................................233 Context-specific effectiveness...........................................234 Coping flexibility.....................................................................234 Approach and avoidance coping strategies.................236 Exercise.......................................................................................240 Chapter summary........................................................ 243 Key terms......................................................................... 244 Learning checklist....................................................... 244 Chapter test..................................................................... 246 CHAPTER 4 Neural basis of learning and memory�������������������������������������������������������������������� 251 Neural plasticity and changes to connections between neurons.......................................................................253 Neural plasticity......................................................................253 Changes to connections between neurons..................254 Long-term potentiation and long-term depression.......255 Role of neurotransmitters and neurohormones.........260 Role of glutamate in synaptic plasticity.......................261 Role of adrenaline in the consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences..................................261 iv Contents Chapter summary........................................................ 267 Key terms......................................................................... 268 Learning checklist....................................................... 268 Chapter test..................................................................... 269 CHAPTER 5 Models to explain learning�������������������������� 273 Classical conditioning............................................................ 276 Classical conditioning as a three-phase process....... 279 Stimulus generalisation........................................................284 Stimulus discrimination.......................................................284 Extinction...................................................................................285 Spontaneous recovery..........................................................285 The ‘Little Albert’ experiment..........................................287 Operant conditioning.............................................................292 Operant conditioning as a three-phase model...........................................................................................293 Reinforcers.................................................................................298 Punishment...............................................................................302 Stimulus generalisation........................................................306 Stimulus discrimination.......................................................306 Extinction...................................................................................307 Spontaneous recovery..........................................................307 Comparing classical and operant conditioning.........308 Observational learning.......................................................... 312 Observational learning processes.................................... 315 Bandura’s experiments with children............................ 318 Chapter summary........................................................ 322 Key terms......................................................................... 323 Learning checklist....................................................... 323 Chapter test..................................................................... 325 CHAPTER 6 Process of memory�����������������������������������������������331 Atkinson–Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory....................................................................................333 Sensory memory.....................................................................335 Short-term memory (STM).................................................343 Long-term memory (LTM).................................................348 Brain regions involved in the storage of long-term memories.........................................................356 Roles of the cerebral cortex...............................................356 Roles of the hippocampus..................................................357 Roles of the amygdala..........................................................359 Roles of the cerebellum.......................................................361 Chapter summary........................................................ 364 Key terms......................................................................... 365 Learning checklist....................................................... 365 Chapter test..................................................................... 367 CHAPTER 7 Reliability of memory������������������������������������������ 371 Methods to retrieve information from memory or demonstrate the existence of information in memory.................................................................................... 373 Recall............................................................................................ 373 Recognition................................................................................ 373 Relearning.................................................................................. 375 Reconstruction.........................................................................377 Fallibility of memory reconstruction.......................... 379 Research by Loftus.................................................................380 Effects of brain trauma on memory............................385 Anterograde amnesia............................................................385 Brain surgery............................................................................388 Alzheimer’s disease...............................................................397 Factors influencing ability and inability to remember................................................................................403 Context and state dependent cues..................................403 Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal........................409 Serial position effect.............................................................. 412 Chapter summary......................................................... 417 Key terms..........................................................................418 Learning checklist........................................................418 Chapter test..................................................................... 420 Unit 4 HOW IS WELLBEING DEVELOPED AND MAINTAINED? CHAPTER 8 Nature of consciousness�������������������������������429 Consciousness as a psychological construct............430 Consciousness varies along a continuum of awareness.................................................................................432 Normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness..........................................................436 Role of attention.....................................................................437 Methods used to study consciousness.........................440 Measurement of physiological responses....................440 Measurement of speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks..........................................................................450 Subjective reporting of consciousness — sleep diaries.........................................................................452 Video monitoring....................................................................452 Changes in psychological state due to levels of awareness.................................................................................454 Content limitations................................................................454 Controlled and automatic processes..............................454 Perceptual and cognitive distortions..............................456 Emotional awareness............................................................456 Self-control.................................................................................457 Time orientation.....................................................................458 Comparing effects of one night of full sleep deprivation versus legal blood-alcohol concentrations............................................................................460 Chapter summary........................................................ 465 Key terms......................................................................... 466 Learning checklist....................................................... 466 Chapter test..................................................................... 468 CHAPTER 9 Sleep���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 473 Sleep and biological rhythms........................................... 475 Circadian rhythms................................................................. 475 Ultradian rhythms.................................................................. 478 NREM and REM sleep............................................................480 NREM sleep..............................................................................481 REM sleep..................................................................................483 Theories of the purpose and function of sleep............................................................................................489 Restoration theory..................................................................489 Evolutionary (circadian) theory.......................................492 Differences in sleep patterns across the lifespan...................................................................................495 Newborns and infants..........................................................496 Children......................................................................................497 Adolescents...............................................................................497 Adults.......................................................................................
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