report9 - A Wireless Rover With External Video Feedback...

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A Wireless Rover With External Video Feedback Control 7 June 2004 Daniel J. Gibson Joanne Mikkelson A design is presented for a wireless rover with a remote guidance system based on video feedback from an external camera. The design is modular at several nested levels and includes multiple FSMs. It was implemented using a combination of Verilog compiled to FPGAs and a wireless system with a microprocessor on the mobile side. Simulation at all levels from the smallest units to the two major subsystems resulted in predictable behavior of the hardware, at least to the degree that the hardware specifications were known. Better results were obtained by supplying additional detail in the Verilog code, rather than relying on the compiler to make the intended interpretations. The peripheral hardware presented surprising difficulties, notably noise and nonuniformity in the analog video signal and insufficient mechanical power in the wheel motors to drive the rover after adding custom hardware.
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Contents 1 Overview 1 2 Video Analysis System (By Daniel J. Gibson) 1 2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.2 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2.1 Frame Capture & Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2.2 Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Testing and Debugging Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Car Control System (By Joanne Mikkelson) 6 3.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.1 Control Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.2 Car Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 Implementation and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A Appendix: Check-off Sheet 11 B Appendix: Handcrafted Test Data for Simulation 12 C Appendix: Analog to Digital Video Converter 13 D Appendix: Video Sampler FSM 14 E Appendix: Cross Product Computation of Azimuth Error 15 F Appendix: Wireless Control FSM 16 G Appendix: Car-side Wireless Board Code 17 i
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List of Figures 1 Video Analysis System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Determination of Position from Pixel Count Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 Position Analyzer FSM State Transition Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 Two parts of the Car Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 Detailed block diagram of Car Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6 FSM for the movement controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 Simulation of three video frames, odd fields only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8 ADC Circuit Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9 Video Sampler FSM State Transition Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 10 Geometry of Cross Product Computation at Two Points in Time . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11 Wireless Control FSM State Transition Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ii
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1 Overview This project comprises a wireless remote controlled rover, and a fixed position (e.g. tripod mounted) video camera that provides visual feedback. The goal is to enable the user to point to a location on a video screen showing a large area of lab floor containing nothing but the rover, and instruct the rover to go to the location pointed to. The rover is made from a remote-controlled toy car, with both ends of its controller replaced. The car has a dark color to make it easily distinguishable from the white lab floor in the video image. Its direction of movement is calculated by taking the difference in its location at two points in time.
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