L22ThermoIII145s09 - Lecture 22 One-Component Phase...

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Lecture 22, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Reading assignment : OGC §10.4-10.6; §14.1-14.2; eq. [14.4]; §14.6-14.7; C&R §10.1-10.6 Learning objectives: Learn how to “read” a phase diagram for a pure substance Understand equilibrium … … in chemical reactions … as a dynamic balance of two opposing processes Understand the law of mass action: Equilibrium constant, K Relationship between K and ∆G Use Le Châtelier’s principle to predict how a system in equilibrium will respond to changes in the surroundings Lecture 22: One-Component Phase Diagrams; Chemical Equilibrium 1
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Lecture 22, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Place water in flask Seal & evacuate flask Hold flask & contents at 25 °C Monitor P inside flask Q: What happens? A: Gradually, Liquid evaporates OGC Figure 10.16 Phase Transitions [OGC §10.4-10.5] 2
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Lecture 22, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Place water in flask Seal & evacuate flask Hold flask & contents at 25 °C Monitor P inside flask Q: What happens? A: Gradually, Liquid evaporates P rises When P reaches 0.03126 atm, rate of evaporation matches rate of condensation two-phase equilibrium OGC Figure 10.16 Phase Transitions [OGC §10.4-10.5] 3
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Lecture 22, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University OGC Figure 10.21 One-Component Phase Diagram [OGC §10.6] 4 Evaporation-condensation: curve C-T (25 °C, 0.03126 atm) is one point on this curve Melting-freezing: curve B-T Sublimation-deposition: curve A-T Triple point Solid, liquid, and gas coexist in equilibrium C: Critical point At T or P beyond C: Supercritical fluid — liquid and gas are indistinguishable
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Lecture 22, spring 2009
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