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People and Important Events

People and Important Events - People and Important Events...

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People and Important Events 50 Questions 1. Bacon a. Epistemology     – a way of knowing; how you know what you know study of knowledge and how we come to know the world: In order to rejuvenation the mind, we must clean up the mind of cobwebs and backwards ways of thinking…our mind functions as a mirror and reflects reality and we must clear various idols in order to be “clean” b. Empiricism     – the idea that knowledge is gained through the senses; inductive c. The new way to knowledge: progress, rejuvenation, renovation, and rehabilitation i. Faculty Psychology     – capacities that work together and against another 1. Intellect (reason, memory, imagination); short term 2. Passion (appetites/affection, will); long term d. Two-fold doctrine: scholastic and philosophers e. Power over nature – The New Atlantis i. Creation ii. Revelation f. “Novum Organum” - Idols i. Idols of the Mind 1. Tribe – human tendencies 2. Cave – based on how you were raised/brought up (individual) 3. Marketplace – language (ambiguity of language) 4. Theatre - enacted on theatre and not true; false philosophies in religious systems g. He thinks it’s okay to persuade people for self interest and long term goals/will. h. 5 Issues: i. Definition : rhetoric is about overcoming the gravity and strength of the appetite, instrumental in development of the way of thinking about the human mind
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ii. Art : Yes iii. Truth : looking for absolute truth through reason, were are held back from truth bc of the intellectual fallacies /idols of the mind iv. Context : were limited by idols (need help with this one) v. Ethics : very ethical; moral tool because it is about the long term will 2. Descartes a. 5 Issues: i. Ethics : Rhetoric is bad because it was confusing and relied on the ambiguity of language. Rhetoric was the opposite of clear/distinct ideas b. Bacon – sense perception c. Descartes – reason (RATIONALIST) d. Epistemology takes over as 1 st philosophy (rationalist) e. He thinks there really is a real world and we understand it through reason 3. John Locke a. Opposite of Descartes and similar to Bacon b. Empiricist i. No innate ideas – tabula rasa ii. Causal hypothesis – there is a correspondence between the ideas in our head and the outside world. Perception is the process of ideas getting into our heads iii. Simple ideas – combine to form complex ideas c. Opposed to Rhetoric, does not like it. We should do away with Poetry. d. 5 Issues: i. Definition : rhetoric is based on imperfection of words ii. Art : No iii. Truth : there is a truth through perception iv. Context : rhetoric is naughty, so in no context should it be practiced v. Ethics : Opposed rhetoric; the abuse of words is immoral and is deceitful; one should always keep levels of abstraction clear (poetry is bad)
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4. Kant a. Rationalist and Empiricist – married rationalism and empiricism i. Dualism – we cannot know the world in itself – just as it appears to be (agreeing there is a difference) ii. We can only know the world as it appears to human beings (perceived world) 1.
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