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ReviewMidterm1CMS367 - MIDTERM#1 Review CMS367 People BCE...

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MIDTERM #1 Review- CMS367 People : BCE Draco 1 st law-giver in city-state of Athens Solon 1 st reformer in Ancient Greece Kleisthenes More radical reformer in Ancient Greece; most important reformer of political law Thales 1 st sophist; pre-socratic philosopher Humanistic philosophy – ideal that humans are center of universe – not the god’s Hellenization – spread of Greek culture Empedocles Gorgias studied with him Pre-Socratic philosopher who believed language had gread power Protagoras Sophist Influenced Isocrates Anti-logic (idea to argue back and forth) “Man is the measure of all things that are that they are and all things they are not, that they are not.” God’s are responsible for nothing and humans are responsible for everything Rejecting absolutes and affirming the contingency of all knowledge Gorgias Isocrates’ teacher and known for “spell-binding” style “Nothing exists; and if something exists, we cannot know it. if something exists and we can know it, we cannot communicate that knowledge.” Father of Extemporaneous Oratory Gave good impromptu speeches Speech Genres: Political – argumentive/deliberative Forensic – apology (speech of defense) Epideictic – speech of praise Ecomnium of Helen (mixed genre speech) -Had both epideictic and forensic speech genres
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-Persuasive speaking is by the will of the gods . Rhetoric’s physically powerful, lively metaphors, or vivid imagery can persuade. -4 arguments used to exonerate Helen: 1. Will of Fate Left by fate 2. Forced Reduces Paris made her go; he abducted her 3. Words Seduced Persuaded by beautiful words 4. Love Possessed Gave into passions and fell in love Last sentence of Encomium: (Possible Meanings) Helen was a metaphor for rhetoric 5 issues of Gorgias: Definition of Rhetoric : Gifted speaker who persuades a mostly ignorant audience through the artful use of words and vivid imagery and style Art : Yes, the art of deception. Truth and that is why people can persuade. Truth : Truth is irrelevant and if it exists, it just exists because people want to call it truth. There is no Context : One is constrained by context; you have to adapt to the audience, entertain, defend and love is key, to see is to be seduced Ethics : There are moral constraints to what one may/may not do; he does not think that rhetoric is amoral because he does not believe in truth – there is no right or wrong. 5-4 BCE Isocrates – set foundation for public speaking Logographer – speech writer, also one of the 10 Attic Orators Student of Gorgias, possibly Socrates; also, he was influenced by Protagoras 4 good reasons why he was not a sophist: 1. Sophists were iconoclasts and he is not (they are confrontation – in-your-face people) 2. He does not put the mercantile class against the aristocracy and the sophists do to create class strife 3. He does not charge money upfront 4. Sophists were metics – not from Athens Marks transition from speech to writing Oral (speech) – parataxis Writing -- hypotaxis Against the Sophists -Isocrates makes 3 claims
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