Ch_322a_1.012

Ch_322a_1.012 - 1s In-phase combination of atomic orbitals...

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Hybrid Orbitals and Molecular Shape CH 4 sp 3 hybridization The ground state electron configuration of C is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 or 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z valence level This electron configuration explains neither the bonding capacity of C nor the shape of CH 4 .
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Hybrid Orbitals Step One 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z ground state of C Electron Promotion 2s 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z excited state 2p +energy Step Two 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z This set of valence orbitals does not explain the molecular shape of methane. Orbital Hybridization 1s sp 3 hybrid orbitals sp 3 sp 3 sp 3
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Overview ground state for C 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z energy 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z electron promotion +energy excited state 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z hybrid orbitals orbital hybridization 1s sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 1s sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 sp 3
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The Three-Dimensional Symmetry of sp 3 Hybrid Orbitals x z y 2s orbital + 2p x orbital mixing of the 2s, 2p x ,2p y and 2p z orbitals 2p y orbital 2p z orbital yields four sp 3 hybrid orbitals directed towards the corners of a tetrahedron
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The Shape of CH 4 C sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 sp 3 H H H H 1s 1s 1s
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Unformatted text preview: 1s In-phase combination of atomic orbitals yields bonding molecular orbitals. C H H H H four sigma bonds C H H H H 109.5 o a tetrahedral geometry Quiz 1.012 The bonding in ammonia, NH 3 , may be explained by using a set of sp 3 hybrid molecular orbitals in the central nitrogen as follows: 2 2 3 The occupancy of the atomic orbitals is 2s 2p 1s Formation of a set of sp 3 hybrid orbitals in the valence or bonding level gives 1s sp 3 The ground state electron configuration of atomic N is 1s 2s 2p The spatial projection of these hybrid atomic orbitals is N tetrahedral The in-phase combination of these hybrid atomic orbitals of N with the 1s atomic orbitals of 3 H form the bonding orbitals in NH 3 as shown: N H H H N H H H pyramidal geometry...
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2009 for the course CHEM 322AL taught by Professor Jung during the Summer '07 term at USC.

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Ch_322a_1.012 - 1s In-phase combination of atomic orbitals...

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