Ch_322a_2.02

Ch_322a_2.02 - Polar Covalent Bonds The electrons in a...

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Polar Covalent Bonds A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond is its electronegativity. The electrons in a covalent bond usually are not shared equally by the two atoms. When different atoms form a covalent bond, the electrons, on average, will be closer to the atom that can better stabilize the negative charge. The electronegativities of the elements tend to increase in going from left to right across the Periodic Table, and to decrease in going down a column. The most electronegative elements are clustered in the northeast corner of the Periodic Table. Electronegativity Order of Some Common Elements F > O > Cl, N > Br > H, C most electronegative
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Bond Dipoles The polarization of electrons in a covalent bond leads to a permanent separation of charge : B A B is more electronegative ! - ! + A permanent bond dipole (two centers of charge) is formed where ! (delta) means partial. This electrical imbalance leads to electropositive and electronegative regions within the molecule. Examples H F ! - ! + O H H ! - ! + ! +
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Measurement of Molecular Polarity A molecule is polar if there is a net separation of positive and negative charges. Such a molecule has a permanent dipole moment. The symbol for a dipole is
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Ch_322a_2.02 - Polar Covalent Bonds The electrons in a...

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