Ch_322a_3.011

Ch_322a_3.011 - The strongest polarization occurs in the...

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Inductive Effects ethyl fluoride C C H H H H H F ! ! + The highly electronegative fluorine atom polarizes the sigma electrons in the C-F bond. If an electronegative group is introduced into ethane, the sigma bond electrons are attracted ( polarized ) towards the electronegative group, as shown in ethyl fluoride. Alkanes are nonpolar compounds. For example, the C-C bond in ethane has no net polarization of charge. ethane (nonpolar) Because of symmetry , there is no polarization of charge within ethane. C C H H H H H H
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Charge Polarization through Sigma Bonds
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Unformatted text preview: The strongest polarization occurs in the C-F bond resulting in a net positive charge on the !-carbon . C C F H H H H H ! # + In turn, the positive charge on the !-carbon polarizes electrons in the C-C bond leading to a small positive charge on the -carbon . ! + The polarization of charge through sigma bonds due to electronegativity differences is called the inductive effect . Inductive effects weaken as the distance from the substituent increases. C C C X ! ! + ! + ! +...
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Ch_322a_3.011 - The strongest polarization occurs in the...

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