Ch_322a_6.03 - G o(negative the rate of the reaction may...

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Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction can be analyzed in terms of: (1) The extent to which it takes place---how completely the reactants are converted into products after equilibrium is reached. This analysis is based on thermodynamic parameters . (2) The rate of the reaction---how fast (moles per liter per second) the reactants are converted to products. The kinetics of the reaction means the rate of the reaction. Thermodynamics The extent to which a reaction spontaneously proceeds is given by the equilibrium constant , K eq . The K eq is related to the Gibbs standard free energy change by ! G o = -2.303 RT Log K eq A negative value for ! G o means the product state is lower in free energy than the reactant state, and the K eq > 1, while a positive value for ! G o means the product state is above the reactant state, and the K eq < 1.
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The Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Kinetics Even if a reaction has a very favorable
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Unformatted text preview: ! G o (negative), the rate of the reaction may still be very slow. Example The reaction 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2 O (l) has a very favorable free energy change: ! G o = -56.6 kcal/mol Yet when hydrogen and oxygen gases are mixed, no reaction occurs. If there is a high energy source (flame or spark), an explosive reaction occurs. Sometimes, the product of a chemical reaction is not the one with the most favorable ! G o (the thermodynamic product ). Rather, it is the one formed fastest because of a highly favorable reaction pathway. This product is called the kinetic product . The rate of a chemical reaction depends on a particular path from reactants to products---a specific mechanism involving defined chemical intermediates. In the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water, radical intermediates must be formed to carry the reaction along....
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